Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay
Treatment of a Personality Disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder
The following paper is to include a discussion of Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) by applying the major theories of personality, and the problems and impacts associated with this disorder on both a normal and abnormal development scale as it pertains this personality theory. This disorder will be analyzed through literary review using evidence-based counseling strategies that are related to the intervention or the prevention efforts accompanied by PPD Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay. A critique of the reviewed research will discuss what can be learned about this specific disorder as well as what should be further researched to continue the advancement of potential interventions which could sustain the symptoms and ultimately give sufferers a level of functionality. Further discussion will involve how this research can advance the profession of mental health counseling, counselors and clinicians. The conclusion of this paper will entail the application of the theory in treatment by providing a justification for specific treatment models, per current research within the domain of PPD. A detailed description of interventions that are associated with PPD will be demarcated, and the current shortcomings that exist in the future study arenas that may pertain to areas such as cultural, gender, race, socioeconomic and immigrant status. Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay.
Paranoid Personality Disorder is a Cluster A personality type and it is diagnosed by seven (7) major criteria. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel states the disorder numerically as 301.0 (F60.0). The populations vary across race, gender, culture, socioeconomic class and immigration status. PPD occurs in the general population at the rate of 4.4%, and is more prevalent in the homeless population occurring at the rate of 13%. It is more prevalent in males than females, and can be a precursor to other disorders if untreated Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay. The disorder is usually identified in young adults and exists in an array of situations, specified using four (4) or more of the listed symptoms below:
- Suspicion without adequate proof, that people are manipulating, hurting or misleading them.
- Obsession with unwarranted doubts about the loyalties or ability to trust friends, family and acquaintances.
- Unwillingness to disclose information to others, due to unwarranted fears that such dialogue will be used against them maliciously.
- Finds hidden connotations or intimidating connotations into benevolent comments or happenings.
- Is unable to forgive any insults, grievances or rebuffs and holds onto a grudge.
- Sees attacks on character or status that no one else can see and is swift to counterattack with anger.
- Maintains regular suspiciousness without proper justifications about partner or spouse fidelity (DSM V, 2013. P649). Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay.
The nature of PPD usually appears in early adulthood at a time when most people are entering the workforce, and they can appear normal in certain settings with people whom they are not familiar. On certain levels of function, they tend to have normal psychology by being viewed as self-reliant, independent and focused, with a strong presence of autonomy (Lenzenweger 2015). They can also be perceived as the strong quiet type, with leadership qualities. But after a bout of inability to collaborate with others, and the strong need to control their environment and the people around them, this illusion dissipates rather quickly (DSM V, 2013. P650).
Whereas in the abnormal psychology they are secretive, quick to anger, distrusting and view the world and people around them as all having hidden agendas to cause them harm either physically, mentally or emotionally Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay. They have a deep distrust of others and rarely seek out mental health services, believing it is not them who have the problem it is everyone else. Another generally difficulty is that those who suffer from PPD find it hard to maintain close interpersonal relationships (DSM V, 2013. P652). They do not get along with others, and because of their hypervigilance tend to be argumentative, have reoccurring complaints about others or on the other end of the spectrum can appear quiet with apparent hostile aloofness. Within the abnormal frame of PPD, these individuals can also seem cold and standoffish with a lack of tender feelings for anything (Edens, 2013) Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay. They act guarded and secretive, and display devious mannerisms, which nearly all their worry comes from ill perceived notions that the world is out to get them. People who suffer from this disorder will look for ways to prove themselves right about others and their intentions (Ahktar, 2014).
Literature Review – Analyzing Evidence-based Interventions & Preventions
Preventing PPD is nearly impossible due to the nature of the disorder and its eruption time of early adulthood (Bernstein, 2015). With a predisposition, genetically and the innumerous social, environmental and interpersonal outcomes of every possibility giving regard to upbringing, social status, geographic local etc. It would be a very elusive game of cat and mouse to try to pinpoint cause let alone every prevention (Fulton, 2013).
The interventions however, tend to be positive, if one could build the trust of the client troubled with this disorder. Once trust is established there are several therapies that have worked successfully on PPD. Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Client Centered Approach therapy are the most common therapies utilized for the treatment of this personality disorder. All therapist, counselors and clinicians who have communication with clients who suffer from PPD need to maintain a clearly conscious state of being straight-forward with these clients (Hoermann, 2013). Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay Indirect witticisms are more times than not lost on them. References to data about the client not obtained directly from their mouth will increase an excessive deal of suspiciousness. Counselors need to naturally evade trying to have the client sign a release of information (ROI) for info not vital to the present treatment. Situations in life that typically would not give the majority individuals a second thought will simply become part of the focus of attention to these patients, much care must be exerted in dialogues with these particular clients (Dombeck, 2013). An authentic, black and white tactic will more than likely advance the maximum results, concentrating on present life worries which brought the patient into treatment to begin with.
Application of Theory in Treatment
The justification of the treatment process in the peer-reviewed articles all portrayed a common theme of isolating other possible conditions before moving forward with specific treatment plans. Most of the subjects studied were in mental health institutions and were monitored over increments of time ranging from 6 months to 1 year (Cramer, 2016). All the articles stated that the building of trust between client and clinician was a first and foremost stipulation to being able to move forward with a treatment plan (Hardy, 2014). A duality of common perceptions among immigrants and minorities was noted, attributing these behaviors as normal within their contexts because of the cultural divides between their cultures and that of the majority cultural within the United States. It is normal for minority cultures to harbor suspiciousness toward the dominate white culture, and this validates their insecurities with barriers to language, culture, socioeconomic and social status in an unfamiliar context (Demarce, 2017). Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay.
Short Term Goals for Individuals with Paranoid Disorder:
- Client will display levels of a trusting dialogue while communicating with clinician by disclosing emotions and principles.
- Classify then document the persons or entities that client distrusts then document why.
- Client will show agreeability by cooperating with the clinician by exploration of feelings of susceptibility.
- Classification and exploration of historical foundations for the why they feel vulnerable.
- Recognize then document clients perceived principles that other people are unable to be trusted and are evil.
- Give referral so client can obtain a full psychiatric assessment.
- Screen any prescription meds client is prescribed and detail any observed side effects.
- Complete a full psychological assessment to measure clients level of obsession.
- Make a referral to have a neuro-psychological assessment to cancel out client may suffer from an biological etiology. Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay.
- Mirror any oral assembly among fear of others and the clients own feeling of insufficiency.
- Decrease allegations about other people plotting to cause harm.
- Client will demarcate an improved trustworthiness in others and within the communal setting.
- Demarcate trustworthiness of spouse and others, then can move toward a relaxing state while in their company.
- Raise societal interactions by eradicating distress or distrust being conveyed (Verheul, 2012).
Long Term Goals for Individuals with Paranoid Disorder:
- Learn to trust in others by talking positively about others and report an ease when being social.
- Become involved within community and interrelate with other people without becoming self-protective or irritated.
- Feel trust of significant other and stop allegations of unfaithfulness.
- Decrease caution and doubt around other people, increase relaxation, trust, and be more open to interaction with others.
- Achieve a sense of aptitude to think on more significant matters without any intrusion from mistrustful fixations Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder sample essay.
- Standard suitable effectiveness at place of employment, within community relations with only nominal intrusion from suspicious preoccupations (Raza, 2017).
Current intervention gaps
The current gaps that exist within the scope of PPD are varied and numerous. Because suffers do not usually seek out treatment the study numbers are small and outdated. More research into this disorder is needed to determine if possible links between populations exists. Another area of the population that tends to display this disorder is the prison population, and link between this disorder and crime has been noted but requires further probing to result in adequate research. The link between childhood abnormal treatment and adulthood suffering of PPD is too noted but not researched enough to draw a viable conclusion.
Cultural & Immigrant Status
Cultural behavior among immigrants and minority groups does mimic PPD, but most cases are dismissed as having PPD, due to the overwhelming similarity of symptoms without etiology. It is a culture-related norm to be suspicious of the majority culture, and barriers such as language, lack of knowledge of cultural norms and rules, and political acceptance all play a part in the normal development of suspicion within these groups (Raza, 2015).
The research indicates a higher number of individuals from lower class to lower middle class suffer from PPD. Evidence that this occurs in upper class is relevant but these suffers tend to have family and means to suppress the diagnosis formally and therefore they are able to go undetected throughout society (Raza, 2015).
PPD tends to afflict men over women 3:1. It is inconclusive as to why, but research has shown that women are more likely to seek out help for conditions that afflict them than men are (Raza, 2015).
This paper included a discussion of Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) by applying the major theories of personality, and the problems and impacts associated with this disorder on both a normal and abnormal development scale as it pertains this personality theory. This disorder was analyzed through literary review using evidence-based counseling strategies that are related to the intervention and/or the prevention efforts accompanied by PPD. A critique of the reviewed research was discussed and what could be learned about this specific disorder as well as what should be further researched to continue the advancement of potential interventions which could sustain the symptoms and ultimately give sufferers a level of functionality. A brief discussion of how this research evolved, and how this research could advance the profession of mental health counseling, counselors and clinicians. While concluding this paper, it entailed the application of the theory in treatment by providing a justification for specific treatment models, per current research within the domain of PPD. A detailed description of interventions that are associated with PPD were demarcated, and the current shortcomings that exist in the future study arenas that may pertain to areas such as cultural, gender, race, socioeconomic and immigrant status were noted and addressed.
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Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Personality Disorders (DBT)
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