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Respiratory Alterations Essay Example

Respiratory Alterations Essay Example

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Respiratory Alterations Essay Example

Respiratory Alterations Essay Example

To Prepare

Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 27 and Chapter 28 in the Huether and McCance text.
Select one of the scenarios and consider the respiratory disorder and underlying alteration associated with the type of cough described.
Identify the pathophysiology of the alteration that you associated with the cough. Respiratory Alterations Essay Example.
Select two of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the disorder.

Consider the following three scenarios:


Scenario 1:

Ms. Teel brings in her 7-month-old infant for evaluation. She is afraid that the baby might have respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) because she seems to be coughing a lot, and Ms. Teel heard that RSV is a common condition for infants. A detailed patient history reveals that the infant has been coughing consistently for several months. It’s never seemed all that bad. Ms. Teel thought it was just a normal thing, but then she read about RSV. Closer evaluation indicates that the infant coughs mostly at night; and, in fact, most nights the baby coughs to some extent. Additionally, Ms. Teel confirms that the infant seems to cough more when she cries. Physical examination reveals an apparently healthy age- and weight-appropriate, 7-month-old infant with breath sounds that are clear to auscultation. The infant’s medical history is significant only for eczema that was actually quite bad a few months back. Otherwise, the only remarkable history is an allergic reaction to amoxicillin that she experienced 3 months ago when she had an ear infection. Respiratory Alterations Essay Example.

Scenario 2:

Kevin is a 6-year-old boy who is brought in for evaluation by his parents. The parents are concerned that he has a really deep cough that he just can’t seem to get over. The history reveals that he was in his usual state of good health until approximately 1 week ago when he developed a profound cough. His parents say that it is deep and sounds like he is barking. He coughs so hard that sometimes he actually vomits. The cough is productive for mucus, but there is no blood in it. Kevin has had a low-grade temperature but nothing really high. His parents do not have a thermometer and don’t know for sure how high it got. Respiratory Alterations Essay Example. His past medical history is negative. He has never had childhood asthma or RSV. His mother says that they moved around a lot in his first 2 years and she is not sure that his immunizations are up to date. She does not have a current vaccination record.

Scenario 3:

Maria is a 36-year-old who presents for evaluation of a cough. She is normally a healthy young lady with no significant medical history. She takes no medications and does not smoke. She reports that she was in her usual state of good health until approximately 3 weeks ago when she developed a “really bad cold.” The cold is characterized by a profound, deep, mucus-producing cough. She denies any rhinorrhea or rhinitis—the primary problem is the cough. She develops these coughing fits that are prolonged, very deep, and productive of a lot of green sputum. She hasn’t had any fever but does have a scratchy throat. Maria has tried over-the-counter cough medicines but has not had much relief. The cough keeps her awake at night and sometimes gets so bad that she gags and dry heaves. Respiratory Alterations Essay Example.

Post a description of the disorder and underlying respiratory alteration associated with the type of cough in your selected scenario. Then, explain the pathophysiology of the respiratory alteration. Finally, explain how the factors you selected might impact the disorder.

Respiratory alteration

Scenario 3

Post a description of the disorder and underlying respiratory alteration associated with the type of cough in your selected scenario.

Maria is likely suffering from acute bronchitis. That is because her cough has been present form more than five days and is accompanied by purulent sputum. In fact, the consistency, amount and color of the sputum shows that her condition is progressing even as though she has been using over the counter medication (Porth, 2011) Respiratory Alterations Essay Example. Considering the fact that the cough has existed for close to a month and yet she does not smoke and has treated the cough with over the counter medication, it is prudent to suggest that she is likely suffering from a viral infection to the lungs. Acute bronchitis will typically first present as a cough that is accompanied by a scratchy feeling and limited sputum being produced. Overtime, the sputum becomes purulent even as the cough turns productive (Marieb & Hoehn, 2012).

Then, explain the pathophysiology of the respiratory alteration.

The symptoms reported for the condition are caused by the bronchial walls being inflamed. This results in the bronchus experiencing edema even as more mucus is produced. The consequence is infection of the lower respiratory tract that is marked by a productive cough. Although the infection of the lower respiratory tract may not persist for long, and could clear up within days even as the bronchial walls are repaired over the next several weeks (Gielen et al., 2015). Even as the repair continues, the cough perseveres. Patient with acute bronchitis will cough for more than two weeks with some exceeding a month, acting as an indication that the bronchial walls are still being repaired although the acute infection was already cleared (Copstead-Kirkhorn & Banasik, 2014).

Finally, explain how the factors you selected might impact the disorder.

The selected factor is genetics. Ghosh et al. (2013) reports that genetics could have an impact on acute bronchitis by moderating susceptibility. This is seen in the case of EPHX1 low activity diplotype gene where the presence of histidines at exons 3 and 4 increase susceptibility to particulate matter greater than 2.5 micrometers in size, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and second hand tobacco smoke (Ghosh et al., 2013). In this respect, genetics is a factor that impacts acute bronchitis as a disorder. Respiratory Alterations Essay Example.


Copstead-Kirkhorn, L. & Banasik, J. (2014). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Ghosh, R., Topinka, J., Joad, J., Dostal, M., Sram, R. & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2013). Air pollutants, genes and early childhood acute bronchitis. Mutation Research, 749(1-2), 80-86. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2013.04.001 Respiratory Alterations Essay Example

Gielen, S., Backer, G., Piepoli, M. & Wood, D. (2015). The esc textbook of preventive cardiology: clinical practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marieb, E. & Hoehn, K. (2012). Human anatomy and physiology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company.

Porth, C. (2011). Essentials of pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Respiratory Alterations Essay Example.

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