PICO analysis of depression essay
A PICO analysis is used to pose a focused clinical question to which you find appropriate evidence-based answers. The PICO question should include the patient or population (P), anticipated intervention (I), comparison group or current standard (C), and outcome desired (O). In this Assignment, you develop a question related to dementia, delirium, or depression. Through your PICO analysis, you explore various resources and examine current evidence to answer the question you develop.
Select one of the following disorders as your topic: dementia, delirium, or depression.
Review the guidelines in the “Literature Review Matrix” document in this week’s Learning Resources.
Think about a research question around your issue as indicated in Part I: PICO Analysis of Research Topic. PICO analysis of depression essay.
Consider the resources you will use, search terms and criteria, and Boolean search strings as indicated in Part II: Search Strategy.
Using the Walden Library and other appropriate databases, locate five articles related to your PICO question. At least one article must be a systematic review. All of the articles should be primary sources.
Reflect on the five articles you selected as indicated in Part III: Analysis of Literature. Consider the conceptual framework/theory, main finding, research method, strengths of study, weaknesses, and level of evidence for each article PICO analysis of depression essay.
Consider how to use the summaries in Part III to create an evidence table. Use this evidence table to determine appropriate treatment options for patients who present with the disorder you selected as your topic.
Formulate a question around the disorder you selected as indicated in Part I: PICO Analysis of Research Topic. PICO analysis of depression essay.
Identify the resources you will use, search terms and criteria, and Boolean search strings as indicated in Part II: Search Strategy.
Summarize the five articles you selected as indicated in Part III: Analysis of Literature. Describe the conceptual framework/theory, main finding, research method, strengths of study, weaknesses, and level of evidence for each article.
Create an evidence table based on the article summaries in Part III. Describe appropriate treatment options for patients based on this evidence table.
Managing Depression among Pregnant Women
Part I and II
This study investigated the need and strategies to manage depression cases among pregnant women. For this study, five sources were selected from varying databases after entering several search terms and search strings. The key search term deployed for the study included pregnancy, prenatal, depression, exercise. Consequently, the search strings for the study included maternal depression, pregnancy depressive symptoms, child outcomes, pregnancy and prenatal depression, and pregnancy depressive disorder. PICO analysis of depression essay. The resources selected were all primary sources and had a time range of not more than five years. Moreover, two of the articles were systematic reviews.
Part III: Analysis of Literature.
Gentile (2017) conducted a systematic review investigating the effect of Untreated depression during pregnancy with emphasis on both the Short-and long-term effects to the offspring. In the study, Forty-three articles were selected from varying databases since August 2015. This studies revealed that untreated depression during pregnancy had adverse effects on the developing fetus, newborns and young children, a factor which facilitated including hyperactivity, and irregular fetal heart rate, and resulted to premature deaths PICO analysis of depression essay. Consequently, untreated depression during pregnancy had a significant effect on children in later development ranging from “increased salivary cortisol levels, internalizing and externalizing problems, and central adiposity.” The study highlighted a controversy on the correlation between gestational depression and an increase in prematurity and low birth weight.
Another study by Glover, (2014) investigating on the measures that should be enacted to address “Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome” from the study Results revealed that even though other factors such as genetics and postnatal care were at play, prenatal anxiety and depression played a significant role facilitating the child’s behavioral and psychological outcomes PICO analysis of depression essay.
The study by Perales, Refoyo, Coteron, Bacchi, and Barakat. (2015) was a randomized controlled trial investigating whether “Exercise during pregnancy attenuates prenatal depression.” the sample for this study was 184 pregnant women selected from Fuenlabrada Hospital. Two groups EG supervised exercise and CG control group were developed and 90 women from the sample were allocated to the EG while the other 77 women were included in the control group (CG). From this study, it was observed that “supervised physical exercise during pregnancy curbed depression and its incidence in pregnant women.”(Perales et al., 2015)
The other study selected was a systematic review conducted by Staneva, Bogossian, Pritchard, and Wittkowski, (2015) investigating “The effects of maternal depression, anxiety, and perceived stress during pregnancy on preterm birth” in this study Four databases were searched in a bid to select articles “focusing on the association between antenatal depression, anxiety, and stress, and preterm birth published in English between 1980 and 2013.” The study result highlighted a strong correlation between antenatal distress during the pregnancy and preterm birth.
The article by Woolhouse, Gartland, Mensah and Brown (2015) “Maternal depression from early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care” sort to highlight the prevalence and the underlying risk factors for depressive symptoms employing a cohort study for a 4 years nulliparous women as the study design. The sample was 1507 women whereby the resultant data highlighted a mean gestation of 15 weeks PICO analysis of depression essay. From the study 1 in every three women reported a case of depression symptom in the first four months and the resultant depression prevalence in this study was at 14.5%.
Appropriate treatment options
From the analyzed literature its evident that prevalence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women is high. Moreover, Woolhouse et al. (2015) observed that depression symptoms were also likely to extend to the early years of postpartum heightening the negative impact of depression. Consequently, the articles recommend several interventions to curb the depression symptoms and manage stress and depression cases related to pregnancy PICO analysis of depression essay. However, Gentile’s study also cautions the medical practitioners to weigh out possible effects of some intervention strategies especially the antidepressants which have been highlighted as harbouring utero exposure risks (Gentile, 2017). In this regard, following the literature analysis, this study has highlighted four interventions strategies as adequate to manage pregnancy depression cases.
Notably, depression symptoms in women are high in pregnancy and early years of parenting and pose a significant risk to both the mother and the child (Woolhouse et al., 2015). As such, healthcare services should scale up surveillance of depressive symptoms to all women in this categories. In this regard, this study suggests that free depression medical checkups should be enacted in health centres to cater for the pregnant women and those in early years of postpartum.
Consequently, psychological distress manifest in varying ways including anxiety and stress was shown to be highly correlated with depression (Staneva et al., 2015). As such, this paper proposes that any form of psychological distress evident in pregnant women should be handled with heightened caution and curbed adequately. The Health practitioners especially those engaged perinatal care to women should be adequately informed to work in corroboration and share information amongst them self to ensure that all symptoms have been assessed and adequate intervention measures enacted as deemed appropriate (Glover, 2014). This intern will improve outcomes for both mothers and infants.
Lastly, a notable intervention strategy that had a significant positive outcome in the reduction of depression in pregnant women was evident in Perales et al. (2015) study. According, to the study, supervised physical exercise during pregnancy was shown to significantly lower the level of depression and probability of depression incidence in the pregnant women (Perales et al., 2015). The efficacy of the approach was also heightened by the possibility of negative effect both to the mother and the fetus accrued with depressants PICO analysis of depression essay.
According to Gentile (2017), several studies have pointed out on the possibility of negative outcome associated with in utero exposure to antidepressants. However, the study also emphasizes that if untreated dare consequences are likely to befall the mother and the child extending to later years in life. According to the study possible effects of depression in pregnancy to the child in later years include “increased salivary cortisol levels, internalizing and externalizing problems, and central adiposity” (Gentile, 2017, p 157). As such, this study proposes that healthcare institutions should enact programs or collaborate with professional physical exercise providers to ensure the pregnant patients get supervised physical exercise sessions as a means to curb depression cases and symptoms
Gentile, S. (2017). Untreated depression during pregnancy: Short-and long-term effects in offspring. A systematic review. Neuroscience, 342, 154-166.
Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best practice & research Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, 28(1), 25-35.
Perales, M., Refoyo, I., Coteron, J., Bacchi, M., & Barakat, R. (2015). Exercise during pregnancy attenuates prenatal depression: a randomized controlled trial. Evaluation & the health professions, 38(1), 59-72 PICO analysis of depression essay.
Staneva, A., Bogossian, F., Pritchard, M., & Wittkowski, A. (2015). The effects of maternal depression, anxiety, and perceived stress during pregnancy on preterm birth: a systematic review. Women and Birth, 28(3), 179-193.
Woolhouse, H., Gartland, D., Mensah, F., & Brown, S. J. (2015). Maternal depression from early pregnancy to 4 years postpartum in a prospective pregnancy cohort study: implications for primary health care. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 122(3), 312-321 PICO analysis of depression essay.