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NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay

NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay

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NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay

NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay

Introduction

A versatile reaction or adaptive responses is a compensatory component of the body’s appropriate response to a natural request, (Hammer & McPhee, 2014).  The body creates different versatile reactions to manage specific outside intruders. The body can shape the reaction in a way that its reaction to different assaults, body damage or simply body depletion. The pathophysiology, associated alterations, and the patients ‘adaptive responses to the changes caused by the disease processes determined from the given three scenarios will be explained. From the three given scenarios, a diagnosis of Viral Tonsillitis is made from scenario1, diagnosis of Irritant Contact Dermatitis is made from scenario2 and diagnosis of Stress Response is made from scenario 3. Additionally, a mind mad of Viral Tonsillitis will be made, and it will incorporate the study of disease transmission, pathophysiology, chance elements, clinical introduction, and diagnosis of Viral Tonsillitis, and also any versatile reactions to modifications. NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.

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Scenario Number One

Jennifer is a 2y/o old female who presents with her mom. Mother is concerned that Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for 3 days now. Mother says that Jennifer is generally strong and has no medicinal history. The symptoms Mom said Jennifer has been having are: Fever (Temperature of 103.2oF), she is fussy and would not eat. Also upon A physical examination uncovers that the Patient(Jenifer) who shows up intensely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry which indicate fever. The tympanic films are marginally blushed on the outskirts, however generally typical in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates, Lymph nodes are palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. Jennifer said her throat hurts especially when she swallows.  Vital Signs uncover a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute. NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay. From the above chief complaints and symptoms that Jennifer presents with, a diagnosis of Viral tonsillitis will be made. Signs and symptoms of viral tonsillitis are: sore throat, pain on swallowing, erythema and/or edema of the tonsils, and enlarged or tender tonsillar and cervical lymph nodes (Malapane, Solomon, Pellow, 2014). Jennifer’s throat was red, pain when she swallows and palpable lymph nodes. NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.

Pathophysiology of Tonsillitis

Viral Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsillar tissues; most cases are of viral origin, with the adenovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, or respiratory syncytial virus being most commonly implicated. Around fifteen percent to thirty percent cases are caused by bacterial infections, of which group A b-hemolytic streptococcus is the most common in pediatric patients (Malapane, Solomon, Pellow, 2014). For Bacterial Tonsillitis to be determined, a throat culture will be sent to the lab for examination and if and when lab results show bacterial before the diagnosis can be made (Huether & McCance, 2017). Which then will be treated with antibiotics. Tonsillitis commonly occurs in children, the average incidence of all viral respiratory tract infections is five to seven episodes a year per child, and tonsillopharyngitis of all varieties constitutes about 15% of visits to primary care physicians (Malapane, Solomon, Pellow, 2014). The inflammation of the tonsillar, swelling of the lymph nodes, erythema, and fever are versatile reactions to the disorder. (Huether and McCance, 2017). Tonsillar contaminations (tonsillitis) are at times sufficiently extreme to cause upper aviation route hindrance. The frequency of tonsillitis optional to aggregate A beta-hemolytic Streptococus (GABHS) and methicillin-safe Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has ascended in the previous 15 years (Huether and McCance, 2017). Upper aviation route block on account of tonsillitis is an outstanding inconvenience of irresistible, particularly in a youthful tyke. Tonsiller perhaps entangled by arrangement of a tonsillar ulcer, which can additionally add to aviation route check. (Huether and McCance, 2017) NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay. Peritonsiller abscess is typically one-sided and is regularly in a difficulty of intense tonsillitis.

Treatment for Tonsillitis

Bacterial tonsillitis is treated with antibiotic therapy, NSAIDs for pain and fever, rest and adequate fluid hydration, and Tonsillectomy only in advanced cases of the disorder. If the cause is a virus infection, there is no medicine to treat it. But if the cause is a bacterial infection, such as strep throat, the use of antibiotics will be required. (Huether and McCance, 2017). NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.

Scenario Number Two

Jack is a 27-year-old, presents with redness and aggravation of his hands. He reports that he has never had an issue this way, yet around 2 weeks back he saw that the two his hands appeared to be extremely red and flaky, sometimes his hands feels hot and he does not know why. Patient has no known allergies and no medical history. He is a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building, He regularly works with grating solvents and synthetic compounds. Lately he has not been wearing protective gloves because their company is short in supply. Although he stated to washing off his hands once completed with his work. Due to his complaints and symptoms he presents, a diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis is made. NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay. 

Pathophysiology of Irritant Contact Dermatitis

When skin comes in contact with cleaning chemicals, like the ones Jack uses at work, it will cause irritation to the skin causes damage to the epidermal cells and inflammation.  Inflammation is the second line of defense; presenting as redness, heat, swelling, pain, and sometimes loss of function (Huether & McCance, 2017).  Dermatitis is limited irritation of the skin. The aggravation contact dermatitis is the irritation that is caused when some substance found in the working environment come into coordinate contact with the skin. The normal signs will incorporate rankles, redness of the skin, and scales (Proksch & Brasch, 2012). These indications might not occur immediately it depends upon the individual’s skins and the type of chemicals exposed to. The symptoms reported by Jack are the redness and irritation of the hands show that the dermatitis was caused by a chemical that irritates (Proksch & Brasch, 2012). NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay. 

Scenario Number Three

Martha is a 65-year-old female, who is retired, has history of Hypertension (HTN) and she is currently taking hydrochlorothiazide to treat the HTN. She presents today with complaints of difficulty sleeping, “racing heartbeat,” and a loss of appetite. Patient is also currently caring for elderly ill mother, who totally depends on Martha for activities of daily living and everything else. From the above changes that occurred in Martha’s life and symptoms that she is having, a diagnosis of Stress Response is made for Martha NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.

 Pathophysiology of Stress Response

Stress is a system of interdependent processes that are moderated by the nature, intensity, and duration of the stressor and the coping efficacy of the affected individual, all of which in turn mediate the psychologic and physiology response to stress. (Huether & McCance, 2017). Stress can be caused by significant life changes, an expected human response to challenging situations, like the loss of a job, loss of a family member, trauma, and abuse.” (Huether & McCance, 2017). Life change in Martha’s life is caring for her ailing 87 old mother who is recovery from hip replacement and totally depends on Martha for activities of daily living and with no help or relieve from anyone for Martha. Stress response is initiated when a stressor is present in the body or perceived by the mind.  Physiological stress may cause or worsen several disorders, including insomnia, fatigue chronic pain et cetera. (Huether & McCance, 2017) NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.  The release of epinephrine is enhancing myocardial contractility, causing Martha’s heart rate to increase. Glucocorticoids play and important role in the homeostasis of the CNS that regulates memory, cognition, mood and sleep (Huether & McCance, 2017). People response to stress differently, depending on the person’s perception of the stressor and the coping mechanism of the person. To Martha, Stress response must have been triggered by the increased burden of caring for her of her 87-year-old mother who need total assistance from her. These are unexpected circumstances, that were never planned for after her retirement. Stress includes difficulty sleeping and increased heartrate etc (Huether & McCance, 2017).  Martha also is exhibiting these symptoms based on her chief complaints. Adaptive coping strategies are those that focus on the problem and encourage social support resulting in the beneficial reduction in perceived stress (Huether & McCance, 2017).

Treatment for Stress Response

Stress can be managing in different ways and some of those treatment options for Martha are Relaxation techniques, Relaxed deep breathing, to help Martha calm down help with the increased heart rate. Promote socialization outside of caring for her Mom, support groups for individual experiencing comparative circumstances, counseling if possible and Cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT) is the treatment that has met with the most success in combating a stress disorder. CBT has two main components. First, it aims to change cognitions, or patterns of thought surrounding the traumatic incident. Second, it tries to alter behaviors in anxiety-provoking situations (Psychology Today,2018). Cognitive behavioral therapy not only ameliorates the symptoms of acute stress disorder but also attempts to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. (Psychology Today, 2018). NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.

 

 

References

(Zimbron, 2008)

Conclusion

The versatile responses will always be activated once the infection is present. The body defense mechanism and hence generating antigen. The adaptive response to stress includes insomnia, loss of appetite , which were observed in Martha’s case.  The adaptive response to cleaning-chemicals substance includes redness, swelling, and itchiness and the symptoms expressed in Jennifer, the 2y/o old are adaptive response of viral infection that causes the inflammation of the Tonsils. Having a good knowledge of the pathophysiology of  disorders and the body’s adaptive reactions to those disorders or diseases is very important  for the Advance Practice Nurses to properly, rightly diagnose and treat their patients with those diseases. NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay.

References

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding Pathophysiology (6th ed.) St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Hammer, G. G., & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of

disease: An introduction to clinical medicine. (7th ed.) New York, NY:  McGraw-Hill Education.

Proksch, E., & Brasch, J. (2012). The abnormal epidermal barrier in the pathogenesis of contact dermatitis. Clinics in Dermatology, 30(3), 335-344.

National Institutes of Health, (2017). National Tonsillitis Also called: Tonsil Inflammation. Retrieved June 7, 2018 From https://medlineplus.gov/tonsillitis.html NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay

Eunice Malapane, Elizabeth M. Solomon, Janice Pellow, (2014, November 11). Efficacy of a Homeopathic Complex on Acute Viral Tonsillitis. Retreived June , 2018 From https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=11afee78-30e5-4cb4-83f3-afed2b83da35%40sessionmgr4010

Psychology Today, (2018). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Retrieved June 6, 2018. From https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/cognitive-behavioral-therapy

Tonsillitis. (2016). American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Retrieved June 9, 2018, from http://www.entnet.org/content/tonsillitis

Zimbron, J.  (2008). Mind maps—Dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.medmaps.co.uk/beta/

Harvard University, (2018). Understanding the stress response, Retrieved June 7, 2018 From https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response Essay

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