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NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments

NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments

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NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments

NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments

NURS 6050 Week 2 Discussion:Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform

Discussion: Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform

As health care delivery in the United States continues to evolve, either through mandates, improved technologies and training, or other drivers, nurses remain at the forefront in facilitating the success of new initiatives. In 2010, the Institute of Medicine formed a committee of experts to address the following question: “What roles can nursing assume to address the increasing demand for safe, high-quality, and effective health care services?” In the final report of the committee, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, the authors stated:

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This report offers recommendations that collectively serve as a blueprint to (1) ensure that nurses can practice to the full extent of their education and training, (2) improve nursing education, (3) provide opportunities for nurses to assume leadership positions and to serve as full partners in health care redesign and improvement efforts, and (4) improve data collection for workforce planning and policy making. (p. 10) NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

For this Discussion: Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform assignment, you will focus on the research recommendations presented by the committee concerning the role of nurses as leaders. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments. The committee members believe that answers to these research questions are needed to advance the profession of nursing and to further expand their role in health care reform and improvement.

To prepare for Discussion: Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform:

  • Review Chapter 7 in The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health report provided in the Learning Resources. Focus on the information in Box 7.3, “Research Priorities for Transforming Nursing Leadership.” NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Select one of the research priorities listed in Box 7.3 that is of particular interest to you and applicable to your career interests. Consider the benefits and challenges of researching and addressing this priority in nursing.
  • Using the Walden library, identify two to three current articles that address your selected research priority. Consider the current state of research efforts on this priority.
  • Reflect on how the research findings for your area of priority impact nurses as leaders in organizations and health care reform. Why is research on this priority important? NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

By Day 3 of Discussion: Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform

  • Post a description of the priority you selected and the benefits and challenges of further researching this area. Provide an overview of the articles you found (using appropriate APA citations) relating to this priority, and highlight any key findings. Explain how continued research in this area could strengthen the ability of nurses to lead in both individual organizations and as advocates of health care reform. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. Focus particularly on those questions raised to which you can add comments based on shared experiences or situations. Consider how your colleagues’ postings reflect and/or differ from your own perceptions and opinions. Review the Learning Resources for any clarification needed before responding.

By Day 6 of Discussion: Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways: NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format.

Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Discussion: Nurses as Leaders in Health Care Reform Reference:

National Academy of Sciences. (2011) The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health.

Retrieved from https://download.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12956

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NURS 6050 Week 10 Discussion: Ethical Issues With an Aging Population

According to the CDC, “in the United States, the proportion of the population aged >65 years is projected to increase from 12.4% in 2000 to 19.6% in 2030,” (CDC, 2003, para. 2). Caring for this aging population is going to be one of the greatest challenges facing the health care industry. Not only will the number of individuals requiring care rise, but so will the cost. As poignantly stated by Crippen and Barnato, “unless we change the practice of medicine and reduce future costs, and explicitly address the ethical dilemmas we face, there may come a time when our kids simply cannot afford us” (2011, p. 128). NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

In this Discussion, you will examine the ethical issues that the United States and other nations must address when faced with the health care challenges of an aging population.

To prepare:

Consider the ethical aspects of health care and health policy for an aging population.

Review the Hayutin, Dietz, and Mitchell report presented in the Learning Resources. The authors pose the question, “What are the economic consequences, now and for future generations of taxpayers if we fail to adapt our policies to the changing reality of an older population?” (p. 21). Consider how you would respond to this question. In addition, reflect on the ethical decisions that arise when dispersing limited funds. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Contemplate the impact of failing to adjust policy in accordance with the changing reality of an older population.

Reflect on the ethical dilemmas that arise when determining expenditures on end-of-life health care.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the ethical standards you believe should be used in determining how resources should be allocated for an aging population and end-of-life care. Then, provide an analysis of the ethical challenges related to the preparation for the provision of such health care.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

References:

Crippen, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2011). The ethical implications of health spending: Death and other expensive conditions. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 39(2), 121–129. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00582.x

Public health and aging: Trends in aging—United States and worldwide. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5206a2.htm

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NURS 6050 Week 11 Discussion: What Can Nurses Do?

Many people, most of them in tropical countries of the Third World, die of preventable, curable diseases. . . . Malaria, tuberculosis, acute lower-respiratory infections—in 1998, these claimed 6.1 million lives. People died because the drugs to treat those illnesses are nonexistent or are no longer effective. They died because it doesn’t pay to keep them alive. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

–Ken Silverstein, Millions for Viagra. Pennies for Diseases of the Poor, The Nation, July 19, 1999

Unfortunately, since 1998, little has changed. For many individuals living in impoverished underdeveloped countries, even basic medical care is difficult to obtain. Although international agencies sponsor outreach programs and corporations, and although nonprofit organizations donate goods and services, the level of health care remains far below what is necessary to meet the needs of struggling populations. Polluted water supplies, unsanitary conditions, and poor nutrition only exacerbate the poor health prevalent in these environments. Nurses working in developed nations have many opportunities/advantages that typically are not available to those in underdeveloped countries. What can nurses do to support their international colleagues and advocate for the poor and underserved of the world?

In this Discussion, you will consider the challenges of providing health care for the world’s neediest citizens, as well as how nurses can advocate for these citizens.

To prepare:

Consider the challenges of providing health care in underdeveloped countries.

Conduct research in the Walden Library and other reliable resources to determine strategies being used to address these challenges.

Using this week’s Learning Resources, note the factors that impact the ability of individuals in underdeveloped nations to obtain adequate health care.

Consider strategies nurses can use to advocate for health care at the global level. What can one nurse do to make a difference? NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

By Day 3

Post a description of at least two challenges related to providing adequate health care in underdeveloped countries. Then, describe two strategies you might use to address those challenges, and explain why. Finally, describe one strategy nurses might use in advocating for health care at the global level, and explain why this would be an effective strategy.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.

Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.

Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

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NURS 6050 Week 3 Discussion: Financing of Health Care

Discussion: Financing of Health Care

With coinciding concerns about health care costs and the imperative to improve quality of care, health care providers and others face difficult decisions in the effort to achieve an appropriate balance. Such decisions often are addressed in the policy arena. How do policymakers evaluate which health care services should be financed through government programs? NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments. How do ethics-related questions and other considerations play into this evaluation process? Is it possible to contain costs and provide accessible, high-quality care to all, or is the tension between cost and care inherent in the U.S. health care delivery system? These questions are central to health care financing decisions in the United States.

For this NURS 6050 Week 3 Discussion: Financing of Health Care, you will focus on the policy decision-making process that determines what types of care are covered by public and private insurers and the ethical aspects of such financial decisions.

To prepare:

Read the following case study, “Hard Economic and Finance Choices in US Healthcare” (Milstead):

Case Study 1: Hard Economic and Finance Choices in US Healthcare

Applied economics is all about managing scarce resources. Economics is an amoral field of study: it is neither moral nor immoral. Morality and values are determined by individuals at the personal level and by group consensus or majority opinion at the national level. State and federal governments determine the ‘will of the people’ about how to use scarce resources for the good of a nation. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

The U.S. health care system is an exemplar of scarcity: primary care physicians, substance abuse treatment centers, trauma centers, registered nurses, and the money to pay for goods and services. Finance is all about how to pay for goods and services. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) is appointed by the Executive branch of the federal government to make decisions about what the Medicare program will and will not pay for. In this role, MedPAC makes decisions about medications, procedures and treatments. Examples of MedPAC decisions include coverage for left ventricular assistive devices as a destination therapy, coverage for bariatric surgery, and in 2010, coverage of the drug Provenge™. By law, MedPAC is not allowed to use price or cost of any treatment in its decision-making processes.

Review the information in the Washington Post article “Review of Prostate Cancer Drugs Provenge Renews Medical Cost-Benefit Debate” in the Learning Resources.

Consider how policy decisions currently are made about what will and will not be paid for and what changes, if any, could improve the process.

Reflect on how the Washington Post example illustrates the tension between cost and care.

By Day 3

  • Post your analysis and assessment of the ethical and economic challenges related to policy decisions such as those presented in the Washington Post article. How does this type of situation contribute to the tension between cost and care? Substantiate your response with at least two outside resources. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Discussion: Financing of Health Care References:

National Health Expenditures 2010 Highlights, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/downloads/highlights.pdf.

Milstead, J. A. (2013). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

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NURS 6050 Week 9 Discussion: Legal and Ethical Conduct

As emphasized in this week’s media presentation, all nurses need to be familiar with the laws and regulations that govern their practice: their state’s Nurse Practice Act, ANA’s Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, specialty group standards of practice, etc. In addition, basic ethical principles guide nurses’ decision-making process every day. ANA’s Code of Ethics and ANA’s Social Policy Statement are two important documents that outline nurses’ ethical responsibilities to their patients, themselves, and their profession. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments. This said, there is a dilemma: The laws are not always compatible with the ethical positions nurses sometimes take. This week’s Discussion focuses on such a dilemma.

To prepare:

Review this week’s Learning Resources, focusing on the information in the media presentation about the relationship between the law and ethics.

Consider the ethical responsibility of nurses in ensuring patient autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice.

Read the following scenario:

Lena is a community health care nurse who works exclusively with HIV-positive and AIDS patients. As a part of her job, she evaluates new cases and reviews confidential information about these patients. In the course of one of these reviews, Lena learns that her sister’s boyfriend has tested HIV positive. Lena would like to protect her sister from harm and begins to consider how her sister can find out about her boyfriend’s health status. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Consult at least two resources to help you establish Lena’s legal and ethical position. These resources might include your state’s Nurse Practice Act, the ANA’s Code of Ethics, ANA’s Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, and internal or external standards of care.

Consider what action you would take if you were Lena and why.

Determine whether the law and the ANA’s standards support or conflict with that action.

By Day 3

Post a description of the actions you would take in this situation, and why. Justify these actions by referencing appropriate laws, ethical standards, and professional guidelines.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence..
  • Click on the Reply button below to reveal the textbox for entering your message. Then click on the Submit button to post your message. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

NURS 6050 Week 4 Discussion

Discussion: Key Health Determinants

  • Did you know that the United States has a higher rate of infant mortality than Japan (CIA, n.d.)? Or, as Dr. Beilenson states in this week’s media presentation, that “your zip code that you live in makes more difference in your health and well-being than the genetic code that you’re born with?” What causes these differences in health outcomes?
  • To effectively develop policies and programs to improve population health, it is useful to use a framework to guide the process. Different organizations and governmental agencies (for example, Healthy People 2020) have created a variety of such frameworks, which establish measures for assessing population health. These measures frequently are derived from the examination of epidemiologic data, which include key measures of population health such as mortality, morbidity, life expectancy, etc. Within each measure are a variety of progress indicators that use epidemiologic data to assess improvement or change. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

For this NURS 6050 Week 5 Discussion: Key Health Determinants assignment, you will apply a framework developed by Kindig, Asada, and Booske (2008) to a population health issue of interest to you. This framework includes five key health determinants that should be considered when developing policies and programs to improve population health: access to health care, individual behavior, social environment, physical environment, and genetics.

To prepare for Discussion: Key Health Determinants:

  • Review the article “A Population Health Framework for Setting National and State Health Goals,” focusing on population health determinants. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Review the information in the blog post “What Is Population Health?”
  • With this information in mind, elect a population health issue that is of interest to you.
  • Using this week’s Learning Resources, the Walden Library, and other relevant resources, conduct a search to locate current data on your population health issue NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Consider how epidemiologic data has been used to design population health measures and policy initiatives in addressing this issue.

By Day 3

  • Post a summary of how the five population health determinants (access to health care, individual behavior, social environment, physical environment, and genetics) affect your selected health issue, and which determinants you think are most impactful for that particular issue and why. Explain how epidemiologic data supports the significance of your issue, and explain how this data has been used in designing population health measures and policy initiatives. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Discussion: Key Health Determinants References:

Central Intelligence Agency. (n.d.) The world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2091rank.html

Kindig, D., Asada, Y., & Booske, B. (2008). A population health framework for setting national and state health goals. JAMA, 299(17), 2081–2083. doi: 10.1001/jama.299.17.2081

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NURS 6050 Week 5 Discussion

Addressing Behavioral Risk Factors Assignment

“It is unreasonable to expect that people will change their behavior easily when so many forces in the social, cultural, and physical environment conspire against such change” (Kovner and Knickman, p. 139).

When seeking to lessen behavioral risk factors in different populations, one of the greatest challenges is addressing the systemic issues within the population that enable the risky behavior to occur in the first place. Consider the health risks of school-age children not being immunized or drug users sharing needles. As Dr. Beilenson discussed in the Week 4 media program, these risky behaviors led to increases in individual and population health problems. Thus, when planning health prevention programs, it is important to consider how to effectively address risky behaviors at both the individual and the population level. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

The NURS 6050 Week 5 Discussion: Addressing Behavioral Risk Factors Assignment Discussion this week focuses on the use of the Population-Based Intervention Model outlined in the course text Health Care Delivery in the United States, as well as how this model can be applied to strengthen advocacy programs.

To prepare for Addressing Behavioral Risk Factors Assignment:

  • Select one of the behavioral risk factors from the Healthy Population 2010 Objectives (listed in Table 7.1 on p. 128 of the course text) that is of interest to you.
  • Using the Walden Library and other credible websites, research how this risk factor is affecting your community or state NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • With your selected risk factor in mind, review the information on the Population-Based Intervention Model on pp. 136–140 in the course text, Health Care Delivery in the United States. In particular, focus on the concept of downstream, midstream, and upstream interventions. Consider at least one intervention that could be put into place at each stage.

By Day 3

  • Post a description of the behavioral risk factor you selected and how this factor is impacting your community or state. Using the Population-Based Intervention Model, suggest at least one intervention that could be put into place at each stage (downstream, midstream, and upstream) to ensure that a health prevention program addressing the behavioral risk factor would have a greater chance at succeeding. Justify why each intervention you identified would be effective. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research using an in-text citation in APA format.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library. NURS 6050 Policy & Advocacy for Improving Population Health weekly essay discussions and assignments.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Addressing Behavioral Risk Factors Assignment References:

Kovner, A. R., & Knickman, J. R. (Eds.). (2011). Health care delivery in the United States (10th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

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