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NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research

NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research

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NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research

NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research
Discussion – Week 1
Pregnancy is a crucial time for the development of a human life. There are many changes and growth that is happening during nine months of pregnancy. The pregnant mother must alter her lifestyle to meet the needs of her growing baby. Some of these changes include ending drug and alcohol abuse, eating appropriate foods and avoiding harmful foods, receiving proper prenatal care and staying active to promote a healthy pregnancy.

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Patient Safety Problem

I live near an American Indian reservation and I have encountered countless mothers who had late or no prenatal care. In 2017, American Indians were most likely to report late or no prenatal care in 12 percent of births (Late or No Prenatal Care, 2019). The lack of prenatal care poses a risk for both mother and baby. In my experience, when a mother is not receiving prenatal care, they are also involved in reckless activities that are actively harming her and baby. Some of these reckless activities include using drugs and abusing alcohol. Using tobacco and drinking alcohol during pregnancy has been linked to increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can also increase the risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, problems with vital organs and having a small head (What is prenatal care and why is it important, 2017). There are countless, long-term effects of children who have been born from a mother who used illegal substances during pregnancy while not receiving proper prenatal care. NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research.

Change in Practice

A change that could be beneficial for pregnant mothers on the reservation would be completing home visits. Research has shown that a home visiting program for pregnant women and their infants brings about participation and knowledge that will increase positive maternal and infant outcomes (Johnson, 2020). Often, these pregnant mothers do not have the means to go to an appointment or to provide a healthy lifestyle in pregnancy. A home visit would literally meet the expecting mother where she is, she wouldn’t have to try to find a ride to the clinic. Prenatal care and education would be completed, along with supplying necessary vitamins that include folic acid. Enrolling a mother in a drug or alcohol rehab that is safe for pregnancy could improve pregnancy outcomes for both mom and baby.

Research Question

Would home prenatal visits to low-income, high-risk expecting mothers improve pregnancy outcomes for mother and baby?

This question is an example of quantitative research. Common demographic variables utilized in quantitative research are gender and ethnicity (Grove, et al., 2013). Quantitative research contains probable designs, and this research question falls under the quasi-experimental category because it measures the cause and effect of prenatal care via home visits. I think that this type of research would best fit the question posed because quality prenatal care correlates with positive pregnancy outcomes. The other three types of research, descriptive, correlation and explanation, are not useful for this research question simply because they are not focused on the independent variable (prenatal care) that causes change in the dependent variable (pregnant mothers and their baby) (Grove, et al., 2013). NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research.

 

Late or No Prenatal Care. (2019, May 3). Retrieved July 14, 2020, from https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/late-or-no-prenatal-care

What is prenatal care and why is it important? (2017, January 31). Retrieved July 14, 2020, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancy/conditioninfo/prenatal-care

Johnson, M. B. (2020). Prenatal Care for American Indian Women. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 45(4), 221-227. doi:10.1097/nmc.0000000000000633

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2013). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Saunders.

Week 1: Overview of Research

What is research, and how does research relate to nursing practice?

Nursing practice is based on outcomes and best practices supported by research findings. That is, issues related to health are examined, and proposed solutions to promote patient safety and health care quality are tested to best determine nursing protocols for professional practice. Consider for example, current nursing protocols to minimize patient falls in health care settings. Without research, extensive testing, and an awareness of how to promote solutions to minimize the risk of falls, there is an increased risk that this very real patient problem would get worse.

This week you explore an overview of the different types of research uses in health care settings. You examine how each type of research is used by nurses in providing quality of care and in promoting positive patient safety outcomes. The week will conclude with an overview of the basic elements of the research process: (a) problem identification, (b) review of literature, (c) implementation of research methods, (d) analyses and presentation of findings, and (e) conclusions about implications for practice.NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Describe steps of the research process to advance knowledge about quality of care and patient safety
  • Develop a research question that guides the development of a study on patient safety
  • Develop a research question that guides the development of a study
  • Identify different types of research and their contribution to health care

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Gray, J. R, Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1, “Discovering the World of Nursing Research” (pp. 1-15)
  • Chapter 2, “Evolution of Research in Building Evidence-Based Nursing Practice” (pp. 18-34)
  • Chapter 5, “Research Problem and Purpose” (pp. 76-93)
  • Chapter 6, “Objectives, Questions, Variables, and Hypothesis” (pp. 98-117)

Writing Resources and Program Success Tools

Document: Academic Writing Expectations (AWE) Checklist (Word Document)

 

This checklist will help you self-assess your writing to see if it meets academic writing standards for this course. NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research.


Discussion: Choosing the Type of Research for a Research Problem

How do you choose the type of research to conduct to address a research problem? What information should you keep in mind to ensure that your research process will adequately address your research problem?

Understanding the different types of research is a critical skill for the nurse researcher and nursing professional. As a current nursing professional, consider how understanding the different types of research may be conducive to achieving a particular mission in your health care setting, such as developing an intervention to address a quality or patient safety problem. This knowledge can also be a step toward assuming a nursing leadership position. As a critical component of your nursing toolkit, differentiating between the types of research is a fundamental step toward enacting change through the process of research.

For this Discussion, please review the following:

  • Think about clinical practice problems you have seen in health care that compromise patient safety and health outcomes. For example, nursing-sensitive indicators reflect high-priority practice problems, which are described in the article by Martinez, Battaglia, Start, Mastal, and Matlock (2015).
  • Choose one of the clinical practice problems you have seen in your current or past job in a health care setting. Consider the possible causes of this problem and how you think it is, or was, affecting patient outcomes.
  • Some patient safety problems are solved by making changes in clinical practice. For example, decreasing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients often requires changes in clinical practice such as better adherence to preventive measures when catheters are inserted (e.g., use of disposable gloves, maintaining sterile fields, cleansing urethral meatus). For the problem you identified, what specific change in practice do you think is needed?
  • When a practice change is implemented, it is important to verify whether or not the change has improved patient outcomes. One way to determine this is by conducting research. One of the first steps in the research process involves developing a research question that will later serve as the foundation for your study. Using information from Chapter 5 in your textbook and the handout on developing research questions, think about a research question and about the effectiveness of the practice change you proposed in improving patient outcomes.
  • Another step in the research process involves identifying which type of research could be conducted to best answer your research question. In Chapter 5 of your textbook you will find a list of different types of research in the first column in Table 5-2, and Table 5-3. You can learn more about these different types of research in both Chapter 2 and the Glossary in your textbook. To locate even more information, you can also use an Internet search engine for more in-depth descriptions and examples. After learning more about the different types of research, think about which one you think is best for determining how well the clinical practice change you identified will improve patient outcomes.

By Day 3

Post a description of how you would address the following:

Part 1: Patient Safety Problem

Describe the patient safety problem you identified, its causes, and the impact you think it has on patient outcomes. For this problem, describe a specific change in practice that could help improve patient outcomes.

Part 2: Research on Patient Safety Problem

Develop a research question that tests the effectiveness of your practice change in the improvement of one or more patient outcomes. What type of research would you use to answer this question? Describe the reasons why you think this is the best approach and why you would not use the other three types of research.

Note: Post a three paragraph (at least 350 words) response. Be sure to use evidencein-text citations, and essay-level writing skills, including the use of transitional material and organizational frames. Use the writing resources to develop your post.

By Day 7

Read two or more of your colleagues’ postings from the Discussion question.

Respond to two or more of your colleagues with a comment that asks for clarification, provides support for, or contributes additional information.

Post a Discussion entry on 3 different days of the week. See the Rubric for more information.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your Rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 7

To participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion


Quiz: Nursing Research

By Day 7

Complete the quiz which covers content in the assigned readings for this week. The quiz includes questions that are multiple choice, true/false, and matching.

Note on Quiz Content: This quiz will cover (a) definition and importance of nursing research, (b) nursing research trends in the 21st century, (c) basic steps in the research process, (d) clinical origins of research problems (e.g., nursing sensitive indicators), and (e) feasibility of conducting research in clinical settings. The content is covered in this week’s Learning Resources. NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research.

Submission and Grading Information

Submit Your Quiz by Day 7

To submit your Quiz:

Week 1 Quiz


Week in Review

Now you… know the necessary steps to a research process and developed a research question that guides the development of a study and patient safety, including the impact it has on patient outcomes. Next week you will… conduct a literature review including all the components and demonstrate an understanding of ethical issues in conducting clinical research.

Week 2: Conducting a Literature Search on a Clinical Research Question

Have you ever conducted a literature search before? What does a literature search entail, and why might it be important for nursing practice?

As a nursing professional, you may engage in conducting a literature search in order to refine a clinical research question that you might examine through the research process. Examining, reviewing, and considering the literature in the field will help you to hone your research question and think about new ways you might address or answer a research question with clinical practice.

This week, you examine the skills needed to conduct a literature search to locate other studies that have been conducted on a clinical practice problem. Given the importance of ethical considerations throughout the research process, you will also explore the ethical implications of clinical research. You will examine the definition of research ethics, explore a historical overview of ethical problems in research, consider the ethics of using existing data in research, and the implications of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) on research. NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Perform a literature search on a research topic
  • Describe components of a literature review
  • Demonstrate an understanding of ethical issues in conducting clinical research

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Gray, J. R, Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 7, “Review of Relevant Literature” (pp. 120-136)
  • Chapter 9, “Ethics in Research” (pp. 157-188)

Writing Resources and Program Success Tools

Document: Academic Writing Expectations (AWE) Checklist (Word Document)

 

This checklist will help you self-assess your writing to see if it meets academic writing standards for this course.

Required Media

Walden University Library. (2019, June). Introduction to nursing research in the Walden Library [Webinar]. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/nurs3150/week2discussion


Discussion: Conducting a Literature Review

For this Discussion, view the webinar in this week’s resources by a Walden University librarian on strategies to conduct a successful literature search. The webinar provides information on available databases, the use of search engines, and the selection of search terms. Then, you will conduct a literature search on research conducted in the last 5 years on the patient safety problem you identified in Week 1. NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research

By Day 3

Post the following:

For the literature search, describe the following in your post:

  • The databases, search engines, and search terms you used in your literature search
  • The number of research articles you found on your patient safety problem that were published in the last year
  • The challenges you encountered locating research articles and how you overcame them
  • Who you would go to for help in your work setting if you needed help with a literature search

Note: Post a three paragraph (at least 350 words) response. Be sure to use evidencein-text citations, and essay-level writing skills, including the use of transitional material and organizational frames. Use the writing resources to develop your post.

By Day 7

Read two or more of your colleagues’ postings from the Discussion question.

Respond to two or more of your colleagues with a comment that asks for clarification, provides support for, or contributes additional information.

Post a Discussion entry on 3 different days of the week. See the Discussion Rubrics for more information.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your Rubric:

Week 2 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 7

To participate in this Discussion:

Week 2 Discussion


Quiz: Ethical Implications of Research

By Day 7

Complete the quiz which covers content in the assigned readings for this week. The quiz questions are multiple choice.

Note on Quiz Content: This quiz will cover (a) ethics in research, (b) human rights in research, and (c) clinical research. The content is covered in this week’s Learning Resources.

Submission and Grading Information

Submit Your Quiz by Day 7

To submit your Quiz:

Week 2 Quiz


Week in Review

Now you… have conducted a literature review that includes a number of research articles, shared the challenges encountered in locating them and ways to overcome them. Next week you will… be introduced to quantitative research designs and the strengths and weaknesses of those methods.

Week 3: Quantitative Research Designs and Methods

Andre is a nursing student who has just completed the first 2 weeks in a nursing research course. He has defined a clinical research question for his health care setting and has also determined that the research problem exists in the literature. However, his approach to defining a solution for his research question requires that he receive approval from his health care setting before testing it. However, Andre is not quite sure what he needs to do next. Eager to start, Andre jumps ahead in the course syllabus and sees that in the following weeks he will read about quantitative research design and methods. Slightly confused, he is not quite sure what is meant by quantitative research design and methods and begins drafting an email message to his instructor to see if he might be able to use this information for testing
his research question in practice. NURS 3150 3151: Foundations of Nursing Research

What is quantitative research design? What different methods might exist for engaging in quantitative research for nursing practice?

As you have explored in this course, your next step in the research process is to determine what type of research design and methods you will use to engage in research for your research question. While it is possible that many research designs and methods might be appropriate for your particular research question, gaining a firm understanding of different research designs and methods is another useful skill for engaging in nursing research and practice.

This week, you explore the different categories of quantitative research designs used in a clinical research studies. These include experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive and correlational designs. You will examine the basic characteristics of each design (e.g., causality, control, bias, validity, randomization, probability). You will also examine the basic features of the methods used to conduct most quantitative research designs, such as sample selection, data collection and measurement of variables, as well as data management and analyses.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the basic characteristics of quantitative research designs
  • Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of methods used in quantitative research designs

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Gray, J. R, Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 3, “Introduction to Quantitative Research” (pp. 37-58)
  • Chapter 10, “Quantitative Methodology: Noninterventional Designs and Methods” (pp. 192-215)
  • Chapter 11, “Quantitative Methodology: Interventional Designs and Methods” (pp. 217-248)
  • Chapter 15, “Sampling” (pp. 329-360)

Document: Journal Club Template for Quantitative Resear

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