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Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

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Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues. Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

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Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents

· Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels

· Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action

· Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

Learning Resources

Note:  To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the  Course Materials section of your Syllabus. Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Required Readings

Post a response to each of the following: Include sub headings please.

1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.

2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.

3. Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action.

4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to clients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a client in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action. Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Points to follow when writing a paper:

· Please all bullets points, bold, red and highlighted area must be attended to.

· A clear purpose statement (The purpose of this paper is to…) is required in the introduction of all writings.

· Please review all rubrics.

· Check APA format/setting.

· Your final paragraph should be a summary of the key points of your paper.

· Foundational Neuroscience Discussion. Please personalized where necessary.

Refrain from direct quote

Class Rules

Avoid public facing sites like university web pages or foundation pages (such as the American Cancer Society or the Alzheimer’s Association) and medical sites designed for consumption by the general public (such as Mayo Clinic or WebMD).

you are required to cite scholarly resources including peer-review journals and current practice guidelines.

May use https://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/index.html

Writer must be familiar with nursing pharmacology Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

NUR 6630 Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.

Full agonists allow a receptor site to open up an ion channel to the maximum amount and frequency which is allowed by that particular binding site which causes the maximum amount of downstream signal transduction possible to be utilized at the binding site. The ion channel can open more frequently than with a full agonist alone but requires the help of a second receptor site. An antagonist causes a stabilization in the receptor sites in resting phases which is the same mechanism of action at the receptor site when an agonist is not present. Because there are no changes whether an antagonist is present or not, it is said to be neutral or silent.


Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
Partial agonists cause changes in receptors so that ion channels open to a greater extent and with more frequency that at a resting state but less than when a full agonist is present. Antagonists reverse partial antagonists just as it reverses full agonists and result in the receptor site returning to its state of rest. Partial agonists produce ion flow and downstream signal transduction which is more than at a resting state but less than that of a full agonist. When there are unstable neurotransmissions within the brain, a balance must be found to stabilize the receptor output so that there is not too much or too little downstream action occurring. Partial agonists are also referred to as stabilizers since they are typically able to cause an even reaction between extremes of too much or too little action potential (Stahl, 2013).

A class of receptors linked to G proteins are a major target of psychotropic drugs. The G couple proteins have the structure of seven transmembrane regions, spanning the membrane seven times. Each region of the membrane is arranged around a central core which contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter. Drugs can interact at a particular neurotransmitter binding site or at other sites, also called allosteric sites within a receptor. This binding can lead to various modifications of receptor actions by either partially or fully mimicking or blocking any neurotransmitter function which would normally occur at a specific receptor site. Downstream molecular processes can be changed by drug actions as when phosphoproteins are activated or inactivated which results in a difference in which enzymes, receptors, or ion channels are modified by the neurotransmission. These drug actions can also lead to changes in which genes are expressed, altering which proteins are synthesized and which functions are amplified, from synaptogenesis, to receptor and enzyme synthesis, to communication with downstream neurons innervated by the neuron with the G-protein-linked receptor. As a result, drug-induced alterations at the G-protein-linked receptor site can cause actions on psychiatric disorders or symptoms (Stahl, 2013). Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Like G proteins, ligand-gated ion channels are a type of receptor which also forms an ion channel. For this reason, they are both ligand-gated ion channel and also ionotropic receptors or ion-channel-linked receptors. They have dual functions, hence the two names. Ligand-gated ion channels consist of long strings of amino acids which are gathered as subunits around an ion channel. There are many binding sites around these subunits for neurotransmitters, ions and drugs. Complex proteins have sites where ions can pass through a channel or bind to the channel, or where a neurotransmitter can act as a binding site and where natural substances or drugs can bind to a site different than where the neurotransmitter binds resulting in an increase or decrease to the sensitivity of a channel opening. In psychopharmacology, the ion channels that are the most important are those that control sodium, calcium, chloride, and potassium. Full agonists will directly change the receptor site to open the ion channel. Antagonists will cause a steady state at the receptor in its resting state which is similar to how a receptor responds when there is no agonist present. Alternatively, drug-induced modifications which occur with ionotropic receptors cause immediate effects by changing the flow of ions resulting in an immediate clinical onset as when medications such as anxiolytics and hypnotics are used. Some drugs that act at the G-protein-linked receptor sites may have a delayed response caused by an instigation in cellular functions that become activated by the signal transduction cascade (Stahl, 2013).

Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action.

In genetics, there is a DNA code which transcribes specific types of RNA or proteins within cells. While there are greater than 20,000 genes within the human genome, not every gene is expressed, even within the brain. Epigenetics goes a step further than genetics in that there is a determination whether a given gene is made into specific RNA and protein or instead it is just simply ignored or silenced. Further definition states that if a genome is a glossary of all “words” related to protein, than the epigenome is the “story” of all of those “words” into something that is cohesive. The genomic makeup of potential proteins is the same within every single neuron and cell in the body. What causes a normal neuron to malfunction, as in psychiatric diagnoses, or how a neuron winds up a neuron rather than a liver cell is all the result of whether or not specific genes are expressed or silenced. Neurons that are functioning improperly are often impacted by genes with abnormal sequences and if these genes are expressed rather than silenced, mental disorders can ensue. Brain development is not only dependent on inherited genes, but whether or not abnormal genes are expressed, and/or normal genes are silenced. There are many factors which regulate whether or not genes are expressed or silenced and include neurotransmission, the gene makeup, drugs and environment. All of these factors help decide whether or not the brain is one full of learning and memories or drug abuse, stress and psychiatric disorders and whether or not there can be improvement with medications and therapy (Stahl, 2013).

Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to clients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a client in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

In depth knowledge regarding medications, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are important prior to prescribing. In addition to this, one must understand genetics and factors regarding medication uptake and absorption. Farmer (2014) discusses psychopharmacological treatment from a social work perspective and states that a new way of thinking about mental illness is evolving. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked on a project (the Research Domain Criteria RDoC) to change the thought process behind mental illness diagnoses. The RDoC utilizes data regarding pathophysiology, especially related to genomics and neuroscience when it comes to understanding mental illness. Investigation of the biological underlying of mental disorders is being focused on and a new understanding of different dimensions of functioning related to positive and negative valence systems, cognitive systems, systems for social processes, and arousal/modulatory systems are being included and studied as well as the analysis of genes, molecules, cells, neural circuits, physiology. Client behaviors and self-reports are also considered. The idea is to link neurobiology with mental illness diagnoses and find better medications to treat specific mental disorders. We must understand that psychotropic medications work in the brain and CNS to affect the level of a neurotransmitter. Human behavior is the result of neural activity where an axon sends chemical and electrical messages to receiving neurons and a synapse is a communication point between neurons and where an action potential takes place. As PMHNPs, we must understand the mechanism of action in how a medication works, whether it is an agonist or antagonist, and how the major neurotransmitters (acetyl-choline, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate) are affected by specific medications. Medications have different effects based on factors such as client age, gender, race and ethnicity. More studies are needed how race and ethnicity may affect medications as pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as are influenced by genetic factors as well as the environment which includes lifestyle, behavioral patterns, and social interactions. One person’s response to a medication will be determined by gene–environment interaction (Farmer, 2014). Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Understanding that psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, drug addiction, and schizophrenia can have multiple gene involvements rather than “one gene/one disease” relation can assist with finding the right medications and treatments for clients. Understanding epigenetic modifications (histone acetylation and deacetylation, DNA methylation) and how these can result in changes in gene expression is looking to be the future of treating psychiatric disorders (Mahgoub & Monteggia, 2013).

PMHNPs must be aware at this time, when prescribing medications such as an SSRI or SNRI, these medications take time to reach therapeutic effect. Patients must be well educated that they will not feel “better” instantly and must be counseled to stay the course with medication compliance and therapies to achieve maximum benefit.

References

Farmer, R. L. (2014). Interface between psychotropic medications, neurobiology, and mental illnesses. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 84(2-3), 255-272.

Mahgoub, M., & Monteggia, L. M. (2013). Epigenetics and psychiatry. Neurotherapeutics, 10, 734-741.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

NUR 6630 Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

By Day 3

Post a response to each of the following:

  1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents.
  2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
  3. Explain the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action.
  4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to clients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a client in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to two colleagues in one of the following ways:

  • If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
  • If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.

Week 1 discussion

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues. Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents

Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels

Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action

Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medications

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”

Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes. Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Accessible player

Optional Resources

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain.

Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.

Accessible player

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources.

Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Week 1 Discussion

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”

Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Document: Midterm Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

Accessible player

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience Optional Resources

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain.

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.NURS 6630 – Psychopharmacologic Approaches to Treatment of Psychopathology Essay Assignment

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse.

Accessible player

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources.

Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

Assignment: Assessing and Treating Clients With Dementia

The Alzheimer’s Association defines dementia as “a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). This term encompasses dozens of cognitive disorders of impaired memory formation, recall, and communication. The care and treatment of clients with dementia is dependent on multiple factors, including the stage of dementia, comorbidities, family support, and even the care setting. In your role, as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, you must be prepared to not only treat clients with these various cognitive disorders, but also the multiple behavioral issues that often accompany them. For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with dementia Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Reference: Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). What is dementia? Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp

To prepare for this Assignment:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for dementia.

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man With Alzheimer’s Disease. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. At each decision point stop to complete the following:

Introduction regarding disease state

High-level summary of patient case

Purpose of the essay statement

Decision #1

What options were listed?

Which decision did you select?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources Foundational Neuroscience Discussion.

Why didn’t you select the other two options?

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Decision #2

What options were listed?

What option did you choose?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Why didn’t you select the other two options?

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different? Foundational Neuroscience Discussion

Decision #3

What options were listed?

What option did you choose?

Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Why didn’t you select the other two options?

What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.

Note : Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement.

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

References

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access the following chapter, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

· Chapter 13, “Dementia and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

Review the following medications:

For insomnia

· donepezil

· galantamine

· memantine

· rivastigmine

Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

Meltzer, H. Y., Mills, R., Revell, S., Williams, H., Johnson, A., Bahr, D., & Friedman, J. H. (2010). Pimavanserin, a serotonin receptor inverse agonist for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 881–891. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n4/pdf/npp2009176a.pdf

Required Media

Laureate Education. (2016h). Case study: An elderly Iranian man with Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

BACKGROUND

Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian male who is brought to your office by his eldest son for “strange behavior.” Mr. Akkad was seen by his family physician who ruled out any organic basis for Mr. Akkad’s behavior. All laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests (including CT-scan of the head) were normal.

According to his son, he has been demonstrating some strange thoughts and behaviors for the past two years, but things seem to be getting worse. Per the client’s son, the family noticed that Mr. Akkad’s personality began to change a few years ago. He began to lose interest in religious activities with the family and became more “critical” of everyone. They also noticed that things he used to take seriously had become a source of “amusement” and “ridicule.”

Over the course of the past two years, the family has noticed that Mr. Akkad has been forgetting things. His son also reports that sometimes he has difficult “finding the right words” in a conversation and then will shift to an entirely different line of conversation.

SUBJECTIVE

During the clinical interview, Mr. Akkad is pleasant, cooperative and seems to enjoy speaking with you. You notice some confabulation during various aspects of memory testing, so the PMHNP performs a Mini-Mental State Exam. Mr. Akkad scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall. The score suggests moderate dementia.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

Mr. Akkad is 76 year old Iranian male who is cooperative with today’s clinical interview. His eye contact is poor. Speech is clear, coherent, but tangential at times. He makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tic. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect however is restricted. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations. No delusional or paranoid thought processes noted. He is alert and oriented to person, partially oriented to place, but is disoriented to time and event [he reports that he thought he was coming to lunch but “wound up here”- referring to your office, at which point he begins to laugh]. Insight and judgment are impaired. Impulse control is also impaired as evidenced by Mr. Akkad’s standing up during the clinical interview and walking towards the door. When the PMHNP asked where he was going, he stated that he did not know. Mr. Akkad denies suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Diagnosis: Major neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease (presumptive)

RESOURCES

§ Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (2002). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Decision Point One

Select what the PMHNP should do:

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-red.pngBegin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-blue.png Begin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6630/10/mm/alzheimers_disease/img/pill-yellow.pngBegin Raz

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