Your perfect assignment is just a click away

We Write Custom Academic Papers

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to your instructions!

Empirical referents definition essay

Empirical referents definition essay

Nursing Experts

Empirical referents definition essay

Empirical referents definition essay

Define empirical referents


Empirical referents is a research term for the measurable aspect that represents a concept of interest. In fact, they refer to quantifiable features that represent the changes of interest in a concept (Brush et al., 2011).  For instance, in seeking to measure pain, they would be objective and subjective empirical referents that quantify pain. The objective empirical referents would refer to the measures of pain that an independent observer notes while subjective empirical referents would refer to how the patient interprets the pain in terms of verbal and non-verbal expressions and experiences. In this case, pain is the concept of interest while the subjective and objective empirical referents are the measurable pain attributes. Empirical referents definition essay. The attributes could include displeasure, discomfort, fear of rejection, tissue damage, neurophysiological indicators, and emotional distress (Walker & Avant, 2005). It is notable that although empirical referents are intended to present accurate quantitative and comparative representations of the concept of interest, they are influenced by antecedents of the individual participants and subjects that could include demographic characteristics and environmental influences. Despite this shortcoming, it is important to note that empirical referents present a valuable opportunity for presenting a quantifiable perspective that helps in understanding all the components within any concept of interest to a researcher (Liu et al., 2014). In this respect, an empirical referent is a measurable approach for detailing the components and occurrences of a concept, acting as a tool that quantifies the processes associated with the concept and their outcomes Empirical referents definition essay.


Brush, B., Kirk, K., Gultekin, L. & Baiardi, J. (2011). Overcoming: a concept analysis. Nurs Forum. 46(3), 160-168. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.00227.x

Liu, Y., Avant, K., Aungsuroch, Y., Zhang, X-Y. & Jiang, P. (2014). Patient outcomes in the field of nursing: a concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 1(1), 69-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnss.2014.02.006

Walker, L. O., & Avant, K., (2005). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Empirical referents definition essay.

Nursing Experts

Nursing Experts

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Nursing Online Papers only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Nursing Online Papers are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Nursing Online Papers is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Nursing Online Papers, we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.