Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example
Complications of asthma can be sudden. Consider the case of Bradley Wilson, a young boy who had several medical conditions. He appeared in good health when he went to school, returned home, and ate dinner. However, when he later went outside to play, he came back inside wheezing. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead (Briscoe, 2012). In another case, 10-year-old Dynasty Reese, who had mild asthma, woke up in the middle of the night and ran to her grandfather’s bedroom to tell him she couldn’t breathe. By the time paramedics arrived, she had passed out and was pronounced dead at the hospital (Glissman, 2012). These situations continue to outline the importance of recognizing symptoms of asthma and providing immediate treatment, as well as distinguishing minor symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since these symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, as an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate treatment options Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example. For this reason, you need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.
Review “Asthma” in Chapter 27 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.
Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example.
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.
Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example paper.
tThe paper must have a title page, introduction, summary and reference page. The reference shuold be within the last 5 years.
Asthma is a respiratory condition characterized by the airways being obstructed. This is resultant of mucus blocking it, swelling or narrowing that causes shortness of breath, triggers wheezing and coughing, and results in breathing difficult. Although the condition would typically present as a nuisance, it can also present as a serious health condition that interferes with daily activities. The most distressing aspect of the condition is that it cannot be cured. Rather, medical intervention entails management using control strategies to un-obstruct the airway (Copstead-Kirkhorn & Banasik, 2014) Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example. The present paper discusses the pathophysiology, factors affecting presentation and management of chronic and acute forms of asthma.
Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation
Chronic asthma is resultant of increasing sensitivity to viral infection, vitiated lung development, type 2 inflammation, and bacterial colonization. This occurs through the immunological cells that promote hyper-responsiveness bronchial mucosa inflammation of the airways. The immunological cells include neutrophils, basophils, T helper cells, B lymphocytes, lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cell eosinophils. Although chronic asthma reports incidence of hypoxemia, these incidence are fewer than those reported for acute asthma (Lehne, 2015). On the other hand, acute asthma results when the individual inhales antigens that are then bound to mast cells. The bound cells de-granulate to release inflammatory mediators. The mediators include leukotrienes, platelet activating factor, interleukins, bradykinins, histamine, and prostaglandins. These mediators activate the smooth muscles along the airway to experience bronchospasm (Gielen et al., 2015). In addition, the mediators cause edema by increasing the airway capillaries permeability. Even as these occur, goblet cells in the airways increase secretion of mucus causing the air to constrict and obstruct. These are physiological responses from outside stimulation that ensue when dendritic cells detect antigens then send a signal to the Th2 cells to release interleukins that stimulate B cells to produce IgE. In addition, the interleukins stimulate production of eosinophils that present large amounts of proteins to damage the respiratory epithelium so that the breathing activity is hindered. With regards to arterial blood gases, acute asthma is linked with hypoxemia, an abnormally low level of arterial blood oxygen or described as oxygen deficiency in the arterial blood (Huether & McCance, 2017; Marieb & Hoehn, 2012).
Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders
Allergens has been identified as a factor that that influences asthma pathophysiology, to be more precise behavior that exposes an individual to allergens and lung irritants to include working in the fiberglass industry. In fact, approximately 60% of asthma cases are caused by allergens to result in allergic asthma, a condition that begins when the allergens and irritants gain entry into the body. The entry occurs via touch, injection, inhalation and swallowing, with the allergen causing a reaction once the body’s immune system identifies its presence. The reaction is described as an allergic reaction that is characterized by itchiness, sneezing, and watery eyes occurring immediately. Overtime, a late response occurs that is characterized by bronchoconstriction and inflammation Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example. A more in-depth analysis shows that once the allergens come into contact with the immune system, the allergic reaction would occur with the mast cells being triggered to produce histamine leukotrienes that result in fast bronchospasm. Other than producing histamine leukotrienes, the triggered mast cells would also produce chemotactic factors that include cytokines, which recruit and activate inflammatory cells resulting in symptomatic neural and vascular effects. The symptomatic effects include chronic inflammation and asthmatic response (Macera, Shaffer, R. & Shaffer, P., 2013).
Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected
Behavior that exposes an individual to allergens and irritants have been identified as a factor that influence asthma occurrence, particularly the occurrence of allergic asthma. To diagnose incidence of asthma, four approaches would be used. The first approach relies on interviews with the patient and symptoms presentation to note whether the patient engages in behavior that includes being in an environment with allergens and irritants Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example. In this case, the patient would report airway obstruction that makes breathing a difficult process. The airway obstruction can either be partial or episodic to be accompanied by hyper-responsive in direct correlation to the allergen. The second approach relies on physically examining the patient, spirometry and reviewing medical history in details to identify signs of the airways being obstructed. The third approach relies on comprehensive medical tests to include pulmonary function test, methacholine bronchoprovocation, allergies and inflammation biomarkers. The final diagnostic approach evaluates the patient’s clinical history to determine how the symptoms changed over time. Wheezing, respiratory distress history, breathing difficulties when carrying out physically tiring activities, and worsening breathing difficulty in night time (McCance et al., 2013). Once the diagnosis has determined that the patient suffers from asthma that obstructs the airways and makes breathing difficult, then the next step is treatment. Treating allergic asthma focuses on using anti-inflammatory medication in the less severe cases since the obstruction in the airway is resultant of inflammation from an allergic reaction. Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example. More severe cases require the use of SABA, ICS, LABA, and corticosteroids to ease respiratory distress (Copstead-Kirkhorn & Banasik, 2014).
Figure 1. Mind map for chronic asthma
Figure 2. Mind map for acute asthma
Asthma is a respiratory condition that presents as obstructed airways that result in breathlessness, wheezing and coughing. It can either present as chronic or acute asthma. Chronic asthma occurs as increased sensitivity to vitiated ling development, type 2 inflammation, bacterial colonization, and viral infection cause airway obstruction to make breathing difficult. Acute asthma is caused by antigens gaining entry into the body and binding to the mast cells that de-granulate and release inflammatory mediators that result in edema and bronchospasms. Overall, it is determined that allergens have an effect on the pathophysiology of asthma. The result is that patients present with watery eyes, itchiness, sneezing and bronchospasm. Diagnosing the condition checks for symptoms presentation, physical exam, comprehensive medical tests, and clinical history. Once the treatment is confirmed, treatment would entail the use of anti-inflammatory medication, SABA, ICS, LABA, and corticosteroids. Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example.
Copstead-Kirkhorn, L. & Banasik, J. (2014). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Gielen, S., Backer, G., Piepoli, M. & Wood, D. (2015). The esc textbook of preventive cardiology: clinical practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Huether, S. & McCance, K. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Lehne, R. A. (2015). Pharmacology for nursing care (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
Macera, C., Shaffer, R. & Shaffer, P. (2013). Introduction to Epidemiology: Distribution and determinants of disease in humans. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Marieb, E. & Hoehn, K. (2012). Human anatomy and physiology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company.
McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V.L. & Rote, N. S. (2013). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier. Chronic and acute asthma exacerbation pathophysiological mechanisms essay assignment example.