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APEA Neurology

APEA Neurology

Nursing Experts

APEA Neurology

APEA Neurology

Question 1:

Sudden, brief, rapid jerks, involving the trunk or limbs may be consistent with:

a myoclonic seizure.  Correct

an absent seizure.

a myoclonic atonic seizure.

a focal seizure with impairment of consciousness.

Explanation:

A patient experiencing a myoclonic seizure manifests sudden, brief, rapid jerks, involving the trunk or limbs. A sudden brief lapse of consciousness with momentary blinking, staring, or movements of the lips and hands but no falling is consistent with an absent seizure. During a myoclonic atonic seizure, the patient experiences a sudden loss of consciousness with falling but no movements. Injury may occur. APEA Neurology. Focal seizures with impairment of consciousness the person appears confused. Automatisms include automatic motor behaviors such as chewing, smacking the lips, walking about, and unbuttoning clothes.

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Question 2:

Which of the following neurological assessment findings indicate the need for further evaluation?

Lifting one foot and then the other when the infant is held upright with the feet touching a solid surface

Fanning and hyperextension of the toes when the sole is stroked upward from the heel

Grasping a finger placed in the neonate’s palm

Weak and ineffective sucking movements Correct

Explanation:

Weak and ineffective sucking movements would indicate the need for further evaluation since any weak, absent, asymmetrical or fine jumping movements would suggest neurological system disorders. APEA Neurology. The other choices represent common reflexes found in the normal newborn: Babinski, grasping, and stepping.

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Question 3:

An example of proximal weakness is:

the right shoulder.   Correct

the right hand.

both arms.  Incorrect

on the right side of the face.

Explanation:

There are 4 different patterns of weakness: Proximal, distal, symmetric, and asymmetric. An example of proximal weakness is weakness in the shoulder or hip girdle. Distal weakness occurs in the hands or feet. Symmetric weakness occurs in the same areas on both sides of the body. An asymmetric weakness occurs in a portion of the face or extremity – a form of focal weakness.

Question:

A female patient complains of weakness in her hand when opening a jar. This finding could be suggestive of which type of weakness pattern?

 

ProximalDistal  CorrectSymmetricAsymmetric

 

Explanation:

To identify distal weakness, ask about hand movements when opening a jar, can or using scissors or a screwdriver. Another example is a problems like tripping when walking.

Question:

A patient presents with an altered level of consciousness. He/she is considered in a stuporous state if he/she: APEA Neurology.

 

appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep.arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, exhibits slow verbal responses, and easily lapses into an unresponsive state.  Correctremains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli.opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused.

 

Explanation:

A stuporous patient arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, verbal responses are slow, and lapses into an unresponsive state. A lethargic patient appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep. An obtunded patient opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused. A comatose patient remains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli.

Question:

One way to assess cerebellar function would be to have the patient:

 

hop on one foot.  Correctread out loud.  Incorrectshrug the shoulders.discriminate between light and sharp pain.

 

Explanation:

The cerebellar function tests are used to monitor the patient’s sense of equilibrium, which includes the patient’s gait (walk), ability to stand upright with eyes closed (Romberg test), touch finger to nose, and move the heel to opposite knee while lying down. Other examples also include: hopping on one foot, walking heel-to-toe, and touching the examiner’s finger and the examinees’ nose. Reading out loud tests visual acuity; shrugging shoulders assesses the spinal accessory nerve and discriminating pain between light and sharp assesses the sensory system.

Question:

Hypesthesia refers to:

 

absence of touch sensation.decreased sensitivity to touch.  Correctincreased sensitivity to touch.   Incorrectabsence of pain sensation.

 

Explanation:

Anesthesia is absence of touch sensation; hypesthesia is decreased sensitivity to touch; hyperesthesia is increased sensitivity to touch; and analgesia refers to absence of pain sensation.

Question:

When conducting a neurologic exam, which one of the following assessments is not considered part of the mental status assessment? APEA Neurology.

 

Level of alertnessCranial Nerve II (CNII)  CorrectAppropriateness of responsesOrientation to time

 

Explanation:

When conducting a neurologic exam, mental status assessment should include evaluation of the level of alertness, appropriateness of responses, and orientation to person, place, and time. Assessing cranial nerve II would be part of the cranial nerve assessment.

Question:

A mother reports to the nurse practitioner that her teenager might be taking drugs because earlier today the teenager had a mild seizure and now has an unstable gait and is beginning to complain of shortness of breath. These symptoms might be consistent with a possible overdose of:

 

barbiturates.amphetamines.  Correctmarijuana.opioids.

 

Explanation:

Amphetamines are central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. The teenager could exhibit signs of ataxia, respiratory distress, seizures, coma, myocardial infarction, death if he/she consumed this substance. Impaired memory, judgment, and attention, slurred speech, drowsiness, and irritability are suggestive of central nervous system depressants (CNS). Barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines fall in this class. Opioids may cause euphoria, drowsiness, constricted pupils and some of the same symptoms as CNS depressants. Marijuana intoxication would present with relaxation, euphoria, detachment, talkativeness, slowed perception of time, and possible anxiety or paranoia. APEA Neurology.

Question:

An ischemic stroke is:

 

a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, without acute infarction.   Incorrectan infarction of the central nervous system tissue that may be silent or symptomatic.  Correctthe abrupt onset of motor or sensory deficits.focal or asymmetric weaknesses caused by central and peripheral nerve damage.

 

Explanation:

Ischemic stroke is “an infarction of central nervous system tissue” that may be symptomatic or silent. TIA is now defined as “a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, without acute infarction.” The other terms are not related to the new definitions. APEA Neurology.

Question:

By placing the patient in the supine position, the nurse practitioner raises the patient’s relaxed and straightened leg while flexing the leg at the hip, then dorsiflexes the foot. This maneuver is known as:

 

Kernig’s sign.the straight-leg raise.  Correctthe plantar response.the ankle reflex.

 

Explanation:

By placing the patient in the supine position, the nurse practitioner raises the patient’s relaxed and straightened leg while flexing the leg at the hip, then dorsiflexes the foot. This maneuver is known as the straight leg raise and is used to evaluate sciatica. It is positive if there is pain down the back of the leg below the knee APEA Neurology. Ipsilateral calf wasting and weak ankle dorsiflexion may be present.

Question:

The level of consciousness that refers to the patient that appears drowsy but can open his eyes, respond to questions, then fall back to sleep is known as:

 

obtundation.alertness.lethargy.  Correctstupor.

 

Explanation:

Lethargy refers to the patient that appears drowsy but can open his eyes, respond to questions, then fall back to sleep. An obtunded patient opens his eyes, looks at the person speaking to him but responds slowly and appears confused. APEA Neurology. The level of consciousness that refers to the ability of the patient to respond fully and appropriately to stimuli is known as alertness. A stuporous patient arouses from sleep only after painful stimuli.

Question:

When assessing coordination of muscle movement, four areas of the nervous system function in an integrated way. These areas include the motor, cerebellar, the vestibular, and the sensory systems. Which system coordinates a steady posture? APEA Neurology.

 

Motor systemCerebellar system  CorrectVestibular systemSensory system

 

Explanation:

Coordination of muscle movement requires that four areas of the nervous system function in an integrated way: motor system for muscle strength, cerebellar system for rhythmic movements and steady posture, vestibular system for balance and coordinating eye, head, and body movements, and sensory system for position sense.

Question:

An older adult presenting with signs of undernourishment, slowed motor performance, and loss of muscle mass or weakness suggests:

 

depression.frailty.  CorrectParkinson’s disease.Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Explanation:

Undernutrition, slowed motor performance, loss of muscle mass, or weakness suggests frailty.

Question:

Postural tremors appear when the affected part is:

 

at rest.moving voluntarily.   Incorrectis actively maintaining a posture.  Correctgetting closer to its target.

 

Explanation:

Tremors are rhythmic oscillatory movements. Postural tremors appear when the affected part is actively maintaining a posture. Examples include the fine rapid tremor of hyperthyroidism, the tremors of anxiety and fatigue, and benign essential tremor. The other choices are not consistent with postural tremors.

Question:

A discriminative sensation that describes the ability to identify an object by feeling it is:

 

graphesthesia.stereognosis.  Correcttwo point discrimination.astereognosis.  Incorrect

 

Explanation:

A discriminative sensation that describes the ability to identify an object by feeling it is stereognosis. The patients eyes must be closed. Graphesthesia, or number identification, is the ability to identify a number when drawn in the hand of a patient whose eyes are closed. The ability to identify an object touching 2 areas simultaneously is termed two-point discrimination. Astereognosis is a term used to describe the inability to recognize objects placed in the hand APEA Neurology.

Question:

When evaluating a patient for weakness of the upper extremities, bilateral distal weakness is noted. This finding could be suggestive of:

 

alcohol myopathy.polyneuropathy.  Correctmyositis.neuromuscular junction disorders.  Incorrect

 

Explanation:

Bilateral predominantly distal weakness suggests a polyneuropathy, as in diabetes. Proximal limb weakness, usually symmetric and without sensory loss, occurs in myopathies from alcohol, glucocorticoids, and inflammatory muscle disorders like myositis and dermatomyositis. In the neuromuscular junction disorder myasthenia gravis, there is proximal, typically asymmetric weakness that gets worse with effort.

Question:

When observing for thenar atrophy of the hands, a typical observation is:

 

furrowing in the spaces between the metacarpals.  Correctthenar eminences appear full.the hypothenar eminences would appear convex.the spaces between the metacarpals would be slightly depressed.

 

Explanation:

Flattening of the thenar and hypothenar eminences and furrowing between the metacarpals suggests atrophy. Localized atrophy of the thenar and hypothenar eminences suggests damage to the median and ulnar nerves. Normally, the metacarpal spaces are full and slightly depressed and the thenar and hypothenar appear full and convex. APEA Neurology. Motor neuron disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and protein-calorie malnutrition can cause atrophy in the hand.

Question:

Fasciculations in atrophic muscles suggest:

 

a lower motor neuron disease.  Correctrheumatoid arthritis.  Incorrectperipheral nervous system disease.a central nervous system disorder.

 

Explanation:

Fasciculations are small muscle twitches and can be found in any muscle of the body. Fasciculations are not usually serious but can be annoying. If they occur in atrophic muscles, this may suggest a lower motor neuron disease. They are not seen in central or peripheral nervous system disease or rheumatoid arthritis APEA Neurology.

Question:

The part of the brain that controls most functions in the body and is responsible for breathing, heart rate, and articulate speech is the:

 

cerebrum.brainstem.  Correctcerebellum.diencephalon.

 

Explanation:

The nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brainstem. The brainstem controls most functions in the body but mostly responsible for breathing, heart rate, and articulate speech. The cerebrum controls all voluntary actions of the body with the aid of the cerebellum. The diencephalon relays sensory information between brain regions and controls many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system. It also connects structures of the endocrine system with the nervous system and works in conjunction with limbic system structures to generate and manage emotions and memories. The cerebellum, which lies at the base of the brain, coordinates all movement and helps maintain the body upright in space.

Question:

Assessing the neurological status of a child with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt should include:

 

use of the Glasgow coma scale.  CorrectKernig’s sign.brudzinski’s sign.Monroe-Kellie doctrine.  Incorrect

 

Explanation:

The Glasgow coma scale addresses eye, verbal, and motor responses to determine a neurological assessment score and is the first sign of improvement or deterioration in neurological status. Also, signs of increased intracranial pressure should be assessed. Kernig’s sign is any resistance or pain when the child is supine and the leg is extended and knee bent. A positive sign is more consistent with meningitis. Brudzinski’s sign is an involuntary flexion of the knee or hip when the child is in the supine position and the neck is flexed and is also consistent with meningitis. The Monroe-Kellie Doctrine states that the sum of brain, CSF, and blood within the cranial vault is constant. So an increase or decrease in one causes a compensatory increase or decrease in one or both of the others. It is an hypothesis and not an assessment.

Question:

What geriatric condition is characterized by normal alertness but progressive global deterioration of cognition in multiple domains?

 

DeliriumCognitive impairmentParkinson’s diseaseAlzheimer’s disease  Correct

 

Explanation:

Alzheimer’s disease is a geriatric condition in which normal alertness is present but progressive global deterioration of cognition occurs in multiple domains, including short-term memory, but with sparing of memory for remote events, subtle language errors, visuospatial perceptual difficulties, and changes in executive function, or the ability to perform sequential tasks such as instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Delirium is a serious disturbance in a person’s mental abilities that results in a decreased awareness of one’s environment and confused thinking. Cognitive impairment is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement.

Question:

An abnormal or unpleasant sense of touch is termed:

 

dysarthria.dysesthesia.  Correctmetatarsalgia.paresthesia.

 

Explanation:

An abnormal or unpleasant sense of touch is termed dysesthesia. Dysarthria is the term used to describe difficulty forming words. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, tickling, prickling, pricking, or burning of a person’s skin. Metatarsalgia is a term used to describe pain and tenderness in the metatarsals.

Question:

When eliciting deep tendon reflexes in the knee, the nurse practitioner notes an abnormal reflex in the right knee. This abnormality is probably consistent with a pathological lesion in which segmented level of the spine?

 

Cervical 5 and 6Cervical 6 and 7 Lumbar 2, 3, and 4  CorrectSacral 1

 

Explanation:

The segmented levels of the deep tendon reflexes are: Ankle: sacral 1; knee: lumbar 2,3, & 4; Supinator and biceps: cervical 5 & 6; and triceps: cervical 6 & 7.

Question:

When evaluating a patient for weakness of the upper extremities, bilateral proximal limb weakness without sensory loss is noted. This finding could be suggestive of:

 

alcohol myopathy.  Correctpolyneuropathy.myositis.neuromuscular junction disorders.

 

Explanation:

Proximal limb weakness, usually symmetric and without sensory loss, occurs in myopathies from alcohol, glucocorticoids, and inflammatory muscle disorders like myositis and dermatomyositis. Bilateral predominantly distal weakness suggests a polyneuropathy, as in diabetes. In the neuromuscular junction disorder myasthenia gravis, there is proximal, typically asymmetric weakness that gets worse with effort.

Question:

The term used to describe involuntary muscle spasms and twisting of the limbs is:

 

dystonia.  Correctbradykinesia.akinesia.dyskinesia.

 

Explanation:

Dystonia is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms and twisting of the limbs. Bradykinesia is the term used to describe the impaired ability to adjust to one’s body position. This symptom is noted in patients who have Parkinson’s disease. The absence or loss of control of voluntary muscle movements is akinesia. Dyskinesia is defined as the presence of involuntary muscle movements such as tics or chorea. These movements can be seen in children who have rheumatic fever.

Question:

A 40-year-old male presents with complaints of headaches. History reveals headaches that occurred daily for about 4-6 weeks. He had relief for 6 months but now they are recurring. These are most likely:

 

tension headaches.cluster headaches.  Correctmigraine headaches.sinus headaches.

 

Explanation:

Headaches that are episodic with several each day for 4-6 weeks with an extended period of relief for 6-12 months are most likely cluster headaches. Cluster headaches are more common in men than women.

Question:

Which of the following symptoms may be associated with a tumor of the eighth cranial nerve?

 

Dizziness  CorrectInability to close the eyesLoss of the sense of smellInability to taste sour things

 

Explanation:

The eighth cranial nerve (CN) is the vestibulocochlear nerve and it is responsible for hearing and balance. The main symptoms of an acoustic neuroma are hearing loss and tinnitus. They are caused by a tumor affecting the auditory nerve. Inability to close the eye would reflect an abnormality of CN VII, the facial nerve. CN I, the olfactory nerve, is responsible for the sense of smell. Two cranial nerves are responsible for the taste, CN VII and X.

Question:

When trying to determine the level of consciousness in a patient whose level of consciousness is altered, a comatose patient:

 

opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, responds slowly, and is somewhat confused.appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep.arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, exhibits slow verbal response, and easily lapses into an unresponsive state.remains unarousable with eyes closed.  Correct

 

Explanation:

A comatose patient remains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli. A lethargic patient appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep. An obtunded patient opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused. A stuporous patient arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, verbal responses are slow, and lapses into an unresponsive state.

Question:

A female patient complaints of weakness in both arms when transferring the wet clothes from the washer and placing them in the dryer. This finding could be suggestive of which type of weakness pattern?

 

ProximalDistalSymmetric  CorrectAsymmetric

 

Explanation:

To identify symmetric weakness, ask about experiencing weakness in the same area on both sides of the body.

Question:

Which developmental area is predominantly affected by lead poisoning?

 

NutritionCommunicationCognition  CorrectMobility

 

Explanation:

Lead is a naturally-occurring element that can be harmful to humans when ingested or inhaled, particularly to children under the age of 6 years. Lead poisoning can cause a number of adverse human health effects, but is particularly detrimental to the neurological development of children.

Question:

A form of aphasia in which the person has word-finding difficulties for speaking and writing is known as:

 

Broca’s aphasia.anomic aphasia.  CorrectWernicke’s aphasia.global aphasia.

 

Explanation:

With anomic aphasia, the person has word-finding difficulties and because of the difficulties, the person struggles to find the right words for speaking and writing. In Broca’s aphasia, speech is confluent, slow, with few words and laborious effort. Inflection and articulation are impaired but words are meaningful, with nouns, transitive verbs, and important adjectives. Small grammatical words are often dropped. With Wernicke’s aphasia, speech is fluent, often rapid, voluble, and effortless. Inflection and articulation are good, but sentences lack meaning and words are malformed (paraphasias) or invented (neologisms). Speech may be totally incomprehensible. With global aphasia, the person has difficulty speaking and understanding words and is unable to read or write.

Question:

A patient presents with an altered level of consciousness. He/she is considered in an obtunded state if he/she:

 

arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, exhibits slow verbal responses, and easily lapses into an unresponsive state.appears drowsy but opens eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep.remains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli.opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused.  Correct

 

Explanation:

An obtunded patient opens the eyes and looks at the examiner, but responds slowly and is somewhat confused. A lethargic patient appears drowsy but opens the eyes, looks at the examiners, answers the questions, and then falls asleep. A stuporous patient arouses from sleep after exposure to painful stimuli, verbal responses are slow, and lapses into an unresponsive state. A comatose patient remains unarousable with eyes closed. There is no evident response to inner need or external stimuli.

Question:

With the patient lying supine, the nurse practitioner places her hands behind the patient’s head while flexing his neck forward until his chin touches his chest. Neck stiffness with resistance to flexion is noted. This is a positive:

 

Brudzinski’s sign.  IncorrectKernig’s sign.nuchal rigidity sign.  CorrectBabinski’s sign.

 

Explanation:

With the patient lying supine, the nurse practitioner places her hands behind the patient’s head while flexing his neck forward until his chin touches his chest. Neck stiffness with resistance to flexion is positive for nuchal rigidity and suggestive of meningeal inflammation from meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage. To elicit Brudzinski’s sign, flex the neck. Flexion of both the hips and knees is a positive for Brudzinski’s sign. To test for Kernig’s sign, flex the patient’s leg at both the hip and the knee and then straighten the knee. Pain and increased resistance to extending the knee are positive for Kernig’s sign. To elicit the Babinski response, stroke the lateral aspect of the sole from the heel to the ball of the foot with the end of an applicator stick, plantar flexion is normal. Dorsiflexion of the big toe is a positive Babinski’s sign.

Question:

Which of the following procedures should NOT be performed in a comatose patient?

 

Check corneal responseCheck pupillary responseDilate the pupils  CorrectInspect the posterior pharynx

 

Explanation:

When assessing a comatose patient, the nurse practitioner should not dilate the eyes because pupillary reaction is the single most important clue to the underlying cause of the coma: structural or metabolic. The other procedures can be performed on a comatose patient.

Question:

The term used to describe a distortion of any sense, especially that of touch, is:

 

absence of sensation.weakness.dysesthesia.  Correctparesthesia.

 

Explanation:

Dysesthesia is defined as a distortion of any sense, especially that of touch. Absence of sensation is the inability to feel pain or sensation when touched. Weakness is a term used to describe a lack of strength or firmness and its presence requires further investigation. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, tickling, prickling, pricking, or burning of a person’s skin.

Question:

Winging of the scapula can be noted in patients with all of the following conditions except:

 

liver disease.  Correctinjury to the long thoracic nerve.muscular dystrophy.weakness of the serratus anterior muscle.

 

Explanation:

Normally, the scapulae lie close to the thorax. However, in winging of the scapula the medial border of the scapula juts backward. It suggests weakness of the serratus anterior muscle, seen in muscular dystrophy or injury to the long thoracic nerve. Winging is not characteristic of liver disease.

Question:

Resting tremors refer to those tremors that disappear:

 

at rest.with voluntary movement.  Correctwhen the affected part is actively maintaining a posture.when the target gets closer.

 

Explanation:

Tremors are rhythmic oscillatory movements. Resting tremors are most prominent at rest and may decrease or disappear with voluntary movement. These type tremors are characteristic of the patient with Parkinson’s disease. The other choices are not consistent with resting tremors.

Question:

A patient is instructed to stand, close both eyes, and extend both arms forward with the palms facing upward for 20-30 seconds. If the forearm drifts downward, this would indicate:

 

a normal finding.lower motor neuron disease.corticospinal tract lesion .  Correctcerebellum lesion.

 

Explanation:

A patient is instructed to stand, close both eyes, and extend both arms forward with the palms facing upward for 20-30 seconds. If the forearm drifts downward, this would indicate a corticospinal lesion originating in the contralateral hemisphere. An upward drift would be indicative of a lesion in the cerebellum. This test is called the Test for Pronator Drift and is used to test for upper motor neuron disease.

Question:

A progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement is known as:

 

delirium.functional impairment.Parkinson’s disease.  CorrectAlzheimer’s disease.

 

Explanation:

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. Delirium is a serious disturbance in a person’s mental abilities that results in a decreased awareness of one’s environment and confused thinking. Cognitive impairment is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is a geriatric condition in which normal alertness is present but progressive global deterioration of cognition occurs in multiple domains, including short-term memory, but with sparing of memory for remote events, subtle language errors, visuospatial perceptual difficulties, and changes in executive function, or the ability to perform sequential tasks such as instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).

Question:

While assessing the trigeminal nerve V (CN V) for sensory function, the patient reports a pain sensation on the right cheek. This finding could be consistent with a:

 

bilateral hemispheric disease. central nervous system lesions.cranial nerve disorder.  Correctbrainstem lesion.  Incorrect

 

Explanation:

While assessing the trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve V (CN V) for sensory function, the patient reports a pain sensation on the right cheek. This finding could be consistent with a cranial nerve disorder, such as trigeminal neuralgia.

Question:

When assessing the cranial nerves, the nurse practitioner uses the tongue blade to gently stimulate the back of the throat on each side. A unilateral absence of the gag reflex is noted. This finding could be suggestive of a unilateral lesion in which cranial nerve?

 

Cranial Nerve V (CN V)Cranial Nerve VII (CN VII)Cranial Nerve IX (CN IX)  CorrectCranial Nerve XII (CN XII)

 

Explanation:

Unilateral absence of the gag reflex suggests a lesion of CN IX or CN X. glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.

Question:

On examination of the adult patient, symptoms of flexed posture, tremor, rigidity, and shuffling gait are observed. These findings are consistent with:

 

drug induced reaction.functional impairment.Parkinson’s disease.  Correctdepression.

 

Explanation:

Evidence of flexed posture, tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, micrographia,

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